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Collard greens
 Collard, Collard greens
Collard greens on right
Habit: please add
Height: 12-48 inches
Width: 18- 30 inches
Lifespan: Biennial, Perennial
Origin: {{{origin}}}
Poisonous: {{{poisonous}}}
Exposure: Sun
Water: Regular
Features: Edible
Hardiness: Hardy
Bloom: {{{bloom}}}
USDA Zones: please add
Sunset Zones: please add
[[{{{domain}}}]] > [[{{{superregnum}}}]] > Plantae > [[{{{subregnum}}}]] > [[{{{superdivisio}}}]] > [[{{{superphylum}}}]] > Magnoliophyta > [[{{{phylum}}}]] > [[{{{subdivisio}}}]] > [[{{{subphylum}}}]] > [[{{{infraphylum}}}]] > [[{{{microphylum}}}]] > [[{{{nanophylum}}}]] > [[{{{superclassis}}}]] > Magnoliopsida > [[{{{subclassis}}}]] > [[{{{infraclassis}}}]] > [[{{{superordo}}}]] > Brassicales > [[{{{subordo}}}]] > [[{{{infraordo}}}]] > [[{{{superfamilia}}}]] > Brassicaceae > [[{{{subfamilia}}}]] > [[{{{supertribus}}}]] > [[{{{tribus}}}]] > [[{{{subtribus}}}]] > Brassica {{{subgenus}}} {{{sectio}}} {{{series}}} oleracea {{{subspecies}}} var. {{{cultivar}}}

Collards, also called borekale (from the Dutch boerenkool (farmers' kale), are various loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea (Acephala Group), the same species that produces cabbage and broccoli. The plant is grown for its large, dark-colored, edible leaves and as a garden ornamental, mainly in Brazil, Portugal, the Southern United States, many parts of Africa, Montenegro, Spain and in Kashmir. They are classified in the same cultivar group as kale and spring greens, to which they are extremely similar genetically.

The plant is also called couve in Brazil, couve-galega in Portugal, (col) berza in Spanish-speaking countries and Raštan in Montenegro. In Kashmiri it is called haak. The name collard is said to derive from Anglo-Saxon coleworts or colewyrts ("cabbage plants").


The plant

Collard var. 'Cabbage Collard'.
Photo by FarmerDill.

The Cultivar Group name Acephala ("without a head" in Greek) refers to the fact that this variety of B. oleracea does not have the usual close-knit core of leaves ("head") like cabbage. The plant is a biennial where winter frost occurs, perennial in even colder regions. It has an upright stalk, often growing up to 2 feet tall. The collard is essentially a non -heading cabbage. As stated by Burpee in its 1888 catalog, a winter cabbage grown and seeded in the south will revert to a collard. Popular cultivars of collards include Georgia Southern, Morris Heading, Butter Collard (or couve-manteiga), and couve tronchuda.


The plant is commercially cultivated for its thick, slightly bitter edible leaves. They are available year-round, but many people believe that they are tastier and more nutritious in the cold months, after the first frost. For best flavor and texture, the leaves should be picked before they reach their maximum size. Flavor and texture also depend on the cultivar; the couve-manteiga and couve tronchuda are especially appreciated in Brazil and Portugal.



Pests and diseases


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