|Berberis subsp. var.|
Berberis (Bér-be-ris, barberry, pepperidge bush) a genus of about 450-500 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 1-5 m tall with thorny shoots, native to the temperate and subtropical regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and South America. They are closely related to the genus Mahonia, which is included within Berberis by some botanists.
The genus is characterised by dimorphic shoots, with long shoots which form the structure of the plant, and short shoots only 1-2 mm long. The leaves on long shoots are non-photosynthetic, developed into three-spined thorns 3-30 mm long; the bud in the axil of each thorn-leaf then develops a short shoot with several normal, photosynthetic leaves. These leaves are 1-10 cm long, simple, and either entire, or with spiny margins. Only on young seedlings do leaves develop on the long shoots, with the adult foliage style developing after the young plant is 1-2 years old.
The deciduous species (e.g. Berberis thunbergii, B. vulgaris) are noted for good autumn colour, the leaves turning pink or red before falling. In some evergreen species from China (e.g. B. candidula, B. verruculosa), the leaves are brilliant white beneath, making them particularly attractive.
The flowers are produced singly or in racemes of up to 20 on a single flower-head. They are yellow or orange, 3-6 mm long, with six sepals and six petals in alternating whorls of three, the sepals usually coloured like the petals. The fruit is a small berry 5-15 mm long, ripening red or dark blue, often with a pink or violet waxy surface bloom; they may be either long and narrow (like a bar, hence 'barberry') or in other species, spherical.
The berries are edible, and rich in vitamin C, though with a very sharp flavour; the thorny shrubs make harvesting them difficult, so in most places they are not widely consumed.
Several are popular garden shrubs, grown for their ornamental leaves, yellow flowers, and red or blue-black berries. They are also valued for crime prevention; being very dense, viciously spiny shrubs, they make very effective barriers impenetrable to burglars. For this reason they are often planted below potentially vulnerable windows, and used as hedges and other barriers.
Berberis buxifolia (Calafate) and Berberis darwinii (Michay) are two species found in Patagonia in Argentina and Chile. Their edible purple fruits are used for jams and infusions; anyone who tries a berry is said to be certain to return to Patagonia. The calafate and michay are symbols of Patagonia.
Berberis vulgaris (European Barberry) is the alternate host species of the wheat rust Puccinia graminis, a serious fungal disease of wheat. For this reason, cultivation of this species is prohibited in many areas.
Some Berberis have become invasive species when planted outside of their native ranges, including B. glaucocarpa and B. darwinii in New Zealand (where it is now banned from sale and propagation), and B. thunbergii in some parts of North America.
Pests and diseases
Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Berberis (Arabic name). Berberidaceae. BarBerry. Ornamental deciduous or evergreen shrubs, cultivated for their handsome foliage assuming in most species brilliant autumnal tints, and for their bright yellow flowers and attractive fruit.
Spiny shrubs with yellow inner bark and wood: Lvs. alternate, often fascicled, usually glabrous, simple, deciduous or evergreen: fls. in elongated or umbel-like, rarely compound racemes, or fascicled or solitary; sepals 6 with 2 or 3 bractlets below; petals 6, often smaller than sepals and usually with 2 glands near the base; stamens 6, included, the anthers opening with valves; ovary superior, 1-celled, with 1 to many ovules: fr. a berry with 1 or several oblong seeds.—Nearly 175 species in Amer. from Brit. Col. to Patagonia, in Asia, S.Eu., and N. Afr. Monogr. by Schneider in Bull. Hort. Boissier, Ser. II. 5:33, 133, 391, 449, 655, 800, 813 (1905). Mahonia is now considered by most botanists as a distinct genus, differing from the true barberries by the pinnate Lvs., by the racemes appearing in the axils of the bud-scales and by the spineless branches. The spines of the barberry are, morphologically, Lvs., and the Lvs. are borne on short branches in their axils (Fig. 538). The stamens are sensitive; when the filaments are touched with a pin, the fls. first open, and the stamens fly forward upon the pistil. Alfred Rehder.
The different species of hardy deciduous barberries are excellent decorative shrubs with pleasing habits of growth. The flowers of most of them in spring and early summer, whilst not conspicuous, are very attractive, and the fruits of nearly all are highly ornamental in late summer, fall and early winter on account of their red, dark blue or nearly black color. Berberis amurensis, B. sinensis, B. diaphana, B. Poiretii, B. Regeliana, B. Sieboldii, and B. Thunbergii all assume brilliant fall colors in varying shades of orange and red. Some species, as B. Thunbergii, B. Sieboldii, and B. Rehderiana, retain their bright red fruits unchanged until the following spring, while the fruits of the other species shrivel and dry up during the winter.
Berberis aristata is the strongest-growing species and attains a height of 12 to 13 feet in twenty years, with gracefully arching branches, and has violet-red fruits; the thickish leaves are semi-persistent. B. canadensis forms a neat compact bush 3 to 3½ feet with upright spreading branches. The small clusters of bright red fruits are very attractive. This is a rare shrub in cultivation, and B. vulgaris has often been sold for it. B. sinensis is a neat, graceful shrub with pendulous branches 3½ to 4 feet and bears numerous clusters of bright red fruits. B. diaphana forms a dense compact shrub 2½ to 3 feet, but its chief decorative value is in its rich fall coloring, as the solitary flowers and fruits are inconspicuous. B. Regeliana has an upright dense habit, and grows from 5 to 6 feet. It has the largest leaves of any of the deciduous species, and the orange- red fruits are remarkably ornamental throughout late summer and fall, until midwinter. This is perhaps the most beautiful barberry in cultivation. B. Sieboldii is slow-growing, but is a very choice species. The habit is upright and compact, and the fall coloring is brilliant. The small vermilion-red fruit-clusters are very attractive. B. vulgaris, which is commonly grown and has become extensively naturalized, has large clusters of brilliantly colored fruits, and is a most useful shrub in border plantations. It is proli6c in many varieties. Perhaps the most distinctive form is the one with yellow fruits, which are usually seedless, or, if the seeds are present, they are abortive. This species makes a good hedge plant as does also B. amurensis; for low ornamental hedges. B. Thunbergii is excellent. Since it makes a rather broad hedge, the plant is most beautiful when it is not necessary to trim it. B. Wilsonae is a small beautiful shrub, 2 to 2½ feet with slender branches and small leaves. The coral- red fruits are very distinctive. The tips of the branches usually are winterkilled, but the plants recover rapidly in summer.
Few of the evergreen species are dependable in the northeastern states. B. Sargentiana, a handsome shrub, attaining a height of about 6 ft., with rather large oblong leaves, has proved quite hardy, and B. buxifolia, B. stenophylla and B. verruculosa nearly hardy in Massachusetts. B. Neubertii rarely has the leaves scorched by winter's cold, but is very slow-growing. For other evergreen species, see Mahonia (formerly included in Berberis).
The root and the inner bark of several species are sometimes used for dyeing yellow. Some species have medicinal properties. The fruits of B. vulgaris are made into jelly. In wheat-growing districts, planting of Berberis should be avoided, as it is the host of the aecidium stage of Puccinia graminis, a fungus which causes the wheat-rust. Destroying the Berberis, however, will not check the propagation of the fungus, as it is able to grow and to spread for years without forming the aecidium stage.
To secure the best results from most of the barberries, they should be planted in moist, light loam, well drained. The deciduous species, however, can be grown in drier situations.
Barberries germinate readily from seeds. The seeds should be separated from the pulp by maceration and sown in "flats" or broadcast in beds in the fall, and they will germinate the following season. The seeds of rare and scarce species should be sown in the greenhouse where they will germinate during the winter. Berberis Wilsonae will germinate in two to three weeks in the greenhouse if sown as soon as ripe. Some of the species cross when grown together, but B. sinensis, B. Regeliana and B. vulgaris appear to come true. The progeny of B. Thunbergii sometimes seem to show that they have been affected by the pollen of B. vulgaris.
Most of the barberries can be propagated from the green cuttings of the young wood taken from the first to the middle of June, and placed in sand in a shaded hotbed in precisely the same way as lilacs, viburnums or hydrangeas are treated. This is the best way to perpetuate individuals of strikingly characteristic habits. A very small percentage of the cuttings of the ripe wood placed in the greenhouse in the fall will "strike," but not enough to pay. Some species may be propagated by suckers. Rarer kinds and varieties are sometimes grafted on B. vulgaris or B. Thunbergii, in August or September under glass, or in early spring in the greenhouse. Grafting, however, is not to be recommended, for the stock usually throws up suckers which are often overlooked on account of the similarity of the foliage of many species; they will overgrow the cion in a short time and smother it. A good plan is to use the purple-leaved barberry as a stock; the suckers are thus easily noticeable and may be removed in time.
B. actinacantha. Mart. Evergreen shrub, to 3 ft.: spines 4-7- parted: lvs. obovate to oblong. ½-1 in. long, spiny: fls. slender- stalked, in clusters. Chile. B.R. 31:55.—B. acuminate, Franch. Allied to B. Gagnepainii. Evergreen shrub: branches yellow, terete: Lvs. lanceolate, 4-7 in. long, acuminate, with numerous small spiny teeth: fls. fascicled; pedicels about 1 in. long. S.W. China. J.H.F. 1900:191.—B. acuminata, Stapf-B. Gagnepainii.—B. acuminate, Veitch-B. Veitchii.—B. aeinensis, Presl. Low, dense, deciduous shrub: branches yellowish gray, angular with numerous spines, about ½ in. long: Lvs. oblanceolate or obovate, spinose-serrate, ½-1½ in. long: racemes short, 8-14-fld. Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica.—B. aggregata, Schneid. Allied to B. polyantha. Lvs. oblong-obovate, spiny-toothed, ¾-1 in. long: panicles short and very dense, about ¾ in. long: fr. subglobose, salmon-red. W. China. — B. Andreana, Naudin-B. laurina. — B. angulosa, Wall. Deciduous shrub, to 4 ft. : young branchlets puberulous, angular, spiny: Lvs. oblong-obovate, ½-1½ in. long, whitish beneath, entire or sparsely sptnulose: fls. solitary or few, slender-stalked: fr. red. Himalayas. B.M. 7071. — B. Aquifolium, Pursh-Mahonia Aquifolium. —B. arguta, Ball -- Mahonia arguta. — B. Belstaniana, Hort.-B. virescens. — B. Bergmanniae, Schneid. Allied to B. Sargentiana. Evergreen shrub, to 6 ft.: Lvs. coriaceous, elliptic, indistinctly veined, 1-1½ in. long: fls. fascicled, many: fr. oblong-ovoid, black, bloomy. Cent, and W. China. Var. acanthophylla, Schneid. Lvs. to 2 in. long, sinuately spiny. W. China. Only the variety is in cult. — B. Bretschneideri, Rehd. Allied to B. koreana. Shrub, to 8 ft.: branches terete, reddish brown with few and small spines: Lvs. obovate-oblong, 1½-2½ in. long, setose-serrate: racemes about 1½ in. long: fr. oblong, purplish. N. China. S.T.S. 2:110. Hardy N.— B. brachypoda, Maxim. Allied to B. amurensis. Shrub, to 6 ft.: Lvs. elliptic-oblong, acute, pubescent on both sides, 1½-3½ in. long: racemes pubescent, slender, 2-3 in. long: fr. scarlet. Cent. China. — B. candidula, Schneid. (B. Wallichiana var. candidula, Schneid. B. Wallichiana var. pallida, Boiss.). Allied to B. verruculosa. Evergreen prostrate shrub: branchlets glabrous, yellowish: Lvs. elliptic with few spiny teeth, white beneath, about 1 in. long: fls. solitary. Cent. China. V.F. 15. — B. Caroli, Schneid. (B. integerrima var. stenophylla, Maxim.). Similar to B. Poiretii. Shrub, to 6 ft. : Lvs. oblanceolate, usually entire, ¾-1½ in. long: racemes 8-14-fld. Mongolia. Var. hoanghensis, Schneid. Racemes many-fld., 1-1½ in. long, pedicels ⅛ in. long: fr. subglobose, salmon-red. W. China. Only the variety is in cult. — B. cerasina, Schrad. Allied to B. sinensis, but Lvs. more often toothed, racemes shorter, hardly longer than the Lvs. and spines shorter, usually simple. Of unknown origin. — B. congestiflora, Gay. Allied to B. hakeoides. Lvs. oblong-ovate to orbicular, often entire: fls. in dense umbels on upright stalks ½-1 in. long. Chile. — B. crataegina, DC. Shrub, to 5 ft. : branches brownish red, nearly terete: Lvs. deciduous, oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, ½-1½ in. long, usually entire: racemes 6-20-fld., 1-2 in. long: fr. bluish black. Asia Minor. — The true B. crataegina does not seem to be in cult. — B. cretica, Linn. Deciduous shrub, to 3 ft.: branches purplish with numerous spines often nearly 1 in. long: lvs. lanceolate, ⅓-¾ in. long, usually entire: fls. 3-7, in short umbel-like racemes. S.E. Eu. Orient.—B. crispa, Gay. Allied to B. hakeoides. Branches puberulous: Lvs. thinner, ovate or oval, spiny-toothed, ½-1½ in. long: fls. 5-8, on slender pedicels, clustered. Chile.—B. dealbata, Lindl. Lvs. persistent, nearly orbicular, with few spiny teeth: racemes short, dense, nodding. Mex. B.R. 21:1750.—B. elegans, Hort.-B. Lycium.—B. emarginata, Willd. Possibly B. sibirica X vulgaris. Low shrub: spines 1-5-parted: Lvs. obovate to obovate-oblong, ½-1¾ in. long, setulose-dentate: racemes shorter than the Lvs., upright; petals usually emarginate. Of unknown origin. G.O.H. 62.— B. Fendleri, Gray. Allied to B. canadensis. Shrub, to 5 ft.: spines 3-5-parted: Lvs. obovate-lanceolate, ¾-1¾ in. long, lustrous, entire or spinulose: racemes dense, long-peduncled, pendulous. Colo. to New Mex. G.F. 1:462.—B. Fortunei, Lindl.-Mahonia Fortunei. —B. Fremontti, Torr.- Mahonia Fremontii.—B. glauca, Benth., not Kunth—B. Jamiesonii.—B. gracilis, Hartw.—Mahonia gracilis. —B. haematocarpa, Wooton- Mahonia haematocarpa.—B. Heterophylla, Juss. Allied to B. ilicifolia. Branches glabrous, yellowish Drown; spines 3-5-parted: Lvs. persistent, obovate to oblong, ½-1¼ in. long, entire, or with 2-4 spiny teeth: fls. solitary: fr. purplish black. Straits of Magellan. H.E. 1:14.—B. heterophylla, Zabel- Mahonia heterophylla.—B. Hookeri, Lem. (B. Jamiesonii. Hort., not Lindl. B. Wallichiana, Hook., not. DC.). Allied to B. Sargentiana. Branchlets angular, stout, pale yellowish brown: lvs. elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, sinuately spiny-toothed, 1-2 in. long: fls. 3-6; pedicels slender: fr. oblong, large, with 4-8 seeds. Origin uncertain; probably Himalayas. I.H. 6:207. B.M. 4656.—B. Hutchinsonii, Rehd.-Mahonia arguta.—B. Jamiesonii, Lindl. (B. glauca, Benth., not Kunth). Evergreen shrub: branches terete, brownish red: Lvs. oblong, 2-3 in. long, entire or with few teeth, lustrous, pale green beneath: fls. in close panicles; pedicels ½ in. long. Peru.—Often confused with B. Hookeri and B. Verschaffeltii.—B. japonica, Spreng.-Mahonia japonica.—B. Knightii. Hort.-B. Wallichiana var. latifolia.—B. laurina Billbg. (B. Andreana, Naudin). Allied to B. buxifolia. Shrub, to 5ft.: branches glabrous, terete; spines to lin. long: Lvs. oblanceolate, 1-3 in. long, entire, pale beneath: racemes pendulous, to 5 in. long: fr. black, bloomy. S. Brazil. R.H. 1899, p. 9.—B. laxiflora. Schrad. Allied to B. amurensis. Lvs. oval to oval- elliptic, obtuse, serration less dense, grayish green beneath: racemes pendulous, 2-3½ in. long. Of unknown origin.—B. Liechtensteinii, Schneid. Deciduous shrub, to 5 ft.: branches slightly angled, purplish with strong spines: lvs. ovate to lanceolate, sinuately spiny, light green beneath, ½-2 in. long: fls, in racemes 1-1½ in. long: fr. globose, red, with 2 seeds. W. China.—B. loxensis, Benth. Lvs. persistent, oblong-obovate, entire or sometimes with a few spiny teeth, lustrous: fls. small in peduncled, loose racemes. Peru. F.8. 6, p. 69.—B. lucida, Schrad. Allied to B. vulgaris. Lvs. elliptic to elliptic-oblong, dark green and lustrous above, obtuse, remotely and finely serrate: racemes spreading, about 2 in. long: fr. red. Of unknown origin; possibly variety of B. vulgaris.—B. Lycium, Royle (B. ruscifolia, Hort., not Lam. B. elegans, Hort.). Shrub, to 6 ft. or more: branches terete, yellowish gray: Lvs. sub-persistent, obovate- lanceolate, ¾-2 in. long, entire or spinulose: racemes sessile, longer than the Lvs., drooping: fr. violet. Himalayas. B.M. 7075.—B. macrophylla, Hort.-B. Wallichiana var. latifolia.—B. macracantha, Schrad. Possibly B. aristata X vulgaria. Branches yellowish gray: Lvs. elliptic, acutish, remotely spiny-toothed, 1-2 in. long: racemes nodding, 1½-2½ in. long: fr. red. Of unknown origin.—B. microphylla var. terrata, Hort.-B. serrata.—B. Mouillacana, Schneid. Deciduous shrub, to 10 ft.: branches grooved, purplish, with simple spines: Lvs. obovate-lanceolate, obtuse, usually entire, light green beneath, ½-2 in. long: fls. in racemes, to 1½ in. long: fr. scarlet, with 2 seeds. W. China.—B. oblonga, Schneid. (B. heteropoda var. oblonga, Regel.). Allied to B. heteropoda. Branches angular: Lvs. obovate: racemes 10-20-fld., usually compound near the base; ovary with 2 sessile ovules: fr. oblong. Turkestan.—B. nepalensis, Spreng. -Mahonia nepalensis.—B. nervosa, Pursh-Mahonia nervosa.— B. pallida, Benth.-Mahonia pallida.—B. parviflora, Lindl.-B. ruscifolia.—B. parvifolia, Sprague. Allied to B. Wilsonae. Low shrub: Lvs. half-evergreen, oblanceolate, entire or occasionally spiny- toothed, glabrous and reticulate beneath: fls. fascicled, 3-6: fr. globose, terra-cotta color. W. China.—B. pinnata, Lag.-Mahonia pinnata.—B. Prattii, Schneid. Allied to B. polyantha. Shrub, to 10 ft.: Lvs. oblong-obovate, entire or with few spiny teeth, reticulate, thinner: panicles narrow, to 6 in. long: fr. globose, salmon-red. W. China. Var. recunata, Schneid. Raceme narrow, spike-like: fr. on reflexed pedicels. W. China.—B. pruinosa, Franch. Evergreen shrub: branches brownish yellow, nearly terete; spines to 1 in. long: Lvs. ovate-oblong, ¾-2 in. long, strongly spiny-toothed, whitish beneath: fls. 8-25, fascicled, rarely in a peduncled umbel: fr. bluish black. S. W. China.—B. Rehderiana, Schneid. Allied to B. koreana, but much smaller in every part, branches reddish brown, slightly angled; spines 3-5-parted: Lvs. obovate to oblong, spinose- serrate, ¾-1¼ in. long: fls. 8-15, in a peduncled raceme: fr. sub- globose, bright red. Origin unknown.—Hardy, graceful shrub; the fr. remains unchanged until the following spring.—B. repens, Lindl. -Mahonia repens.—B. rotundifolia, Hort.-Mahonia repens var. rotundifolia.—B. ruscifolia, Lam. (B. parviflora, Lindl.). Allied to B. buxifolia. Branches terete, yellowish gray: Lvs. oblong, entire or with a few coarse teeth, ½-1½ in. long: fls. in a 4-5-fld. peduncled raceme: fr. bluish black. Argentine. J.H.S. 2:243.—B. ruscifolia, Hort.-B. Lycium.—B. sanguinea Franch. Allied to B. Gagnepainii. Lvs. narrow-lanceolate, ¾-2 in. long, spinose-serrate, pale Beneath: fls. with red sepals, in fascicles of 2-4; pedicels ¾ in. long: fr. bluish black. W. China. V.F. 16.—B. serotina, Lange. Allied to B. sinensis. Lvs. light green, oblanceolate, usually entire: racemes short and dense. Origin unknown.—B. serrata, Koehne (B. microphylla var. serrata, Hort.). Low, deciduous shrub: branches grooved, reddish or yellowish brown: Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, ½-1 in. long, spinulose-serrate: racemes dense, short. Origin unknown.— B. sibrica, Pall. Deciduous shrub: branches angular, yellowish brown; spines 3-9-parted: Lvs. obovate, remotely toothed: fls. solitary or 2. short-pedicelled: fr. red. Siberia. B.R. 6:487.—B. Silva- Taroucana, Schneid. Deciduous shrub, to 10 ft.: branches grooved, brown; spines small or wanting: Lvs. oblong-lanceolate or obovate- oblong, obtuse, entire or with few small teeth, pruinose beneath, ½-2 in. long: racemes 1-2½ in. long; pedicels ⅓-¾ in. long: fr. globose-ovoid, scarlet, with 1-2 seeds. W. China.—B. subcaulialata. Schneid. Deciduous shrub: branches strongly angulate: Lvs. oblanceolate, ½-1 in. long, acute, rarely 3-pointed at the apex, whitish beneath: fls. in very short, 6-8-fld. racemes or rarely fascicled, nodding: fr. globose, red. W. China.—B. tenuifolia, Lindl.-Mahonia tenuifolia.—B. thibetica, Schneid. Deciduous shrub: branches angular, purplish, bloomy: Lvs. obovate-lanceolate, ½-1 in. long, rounded or acutish, mucronulate. entire, whitish beneath: fls. in 1-5-fld. fascicles; pedicels about ⅓ in. long. W. China.—B. Tischleri, Schneid. Allied to B. diaphana. Shrub, to 8 ft.: branches angled, gray, spiny: Lvs. obovate to oblong, obtuse, spinulose-serrate, pruinose beneath, ½-1¾ in.: racemes 4-15-fld.; pedicels ½-1 in. long: fr. oblong, with a distinct style, pale red, pruinose. W. China.—B. toluacensis, Hort.-Mahonia heterophylla.—B. triacanthophora, Fedde. Allied to B. Gagnepainii: evergreen shrub, to 5 ft.: branches terete, brown: Lvs. linear-lanceolate with 2 to 5 spiny teeth on each side or entire, glaucescent beneath. 1-2 in.: fls. 2-5, slender- stalked: fr. black, ovoid, with sessile style. Cent. China.—B. trifoliata, Hartw.-Mahonia trifoliolata.—B. trifoliolata, Moric.-Mahonia trifoliolata.—B. trifurca, Forbes— Mahonia japonica var. trifurca.—B. umbellata, Wall. Deciduous shrub: branches angular, gray: Lvs. oblanceolate, usually entire, rarely sparsely serrulate: racemes long-peduncled, usually umbel-like, sometimes elongated. Himalayas. B.R. 30:44.—B. Veitchii. Schneid. Allied to B. levis. Evergreen shrub: Lvs. narrow-lanceolate, acuminate, sinuately toothed with long and strong spines, 2-4 in. long: fls. 5-8, slender- stalked: fr. ovoid, bluish black. Cent. China.—B. Verschaffeltii, Schneid. (B. Jamesonii, Lem., not Lindl.). Evergreen shrub: lvs. oblong, 2-3 in. long, sparingly spiny-toothed: fls. orange in drooping panicles. Ecuador. I.H. 6:201.—-B. virescens. Hook. Deciduous shrub, 2-5 ft.: branches yellowish red or red, lustrous, terete: lvs. obovate, ½-1¼ in. long, spiny-toothed or entire, light green, whitish beneath: fls. pale yellow, few, fascicled or in peduncled umbel-like racemes: fr. purple, bloomy. Himalayas. B.M. 7116.—Graceful shrub. Hardy at the Arnold Arboretum.—B. Wallichiana, DC. Allied to B. Sargentiana. Evergreen shrub, to 10 ft.: branches grooved, spiny: Lvs. elliptic to lanceolate, spiny-serrate with numerous small teeth, lustrous above, light green beneath, reticulate, 2-4 in. long: fls. 10-20; pedicels about ½ in. long: fr. ovoid, black, with usually 1 long-stalked seed. Himalayas. P.F.G. 1, p. 79. Var. latifolia. Hook. f. & Thorns. (B. Knightii, Hort., not. Koch. B. macrophylla, Hort.). Branchlets less grooved: Lvs. broader, thinner.— B. Wallichiana, Hook.-B. Hookeri.—B. yunnanensis, Franch. Allied to B. diaphana. Branches grooved, gray: Lvs. obovate-oblong, 1 in. long, entire, glaucous beneath: fls. 3-5, fascicled. S.W. China. —Has been confused with B. diaphana. See page 3566.
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
B. aggregata, Suppl. List, (page 492). Add as a synonym B. brevipaniculata, Hort., not Schneid.; the true B. brevipaniculata is not in cult. B. Wallichiana, Suppl. List. The species cult. under this name and described here is B. xanthoxylon, Hassk., to which B. Wallichiana var. latifolia, Hort., and also B. Knightii, Hort., B. macrophylla, Hort., and B. Wallichiana, Hort., not DC., must be referred as synonyms. The true B. Wallichiana, DC., has elliptic lvs. of firmer texture and is not in cult., while the true B. Wallichiana var. latifolia, Hook f. & Thoms., belongs as a synonym of B. Hookeri, Lem.
The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963