American Winterberry

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 Ilex verticillata subsp. var.  American Winterberry
Fruit in winter
Habit: shrub
Height: to
Width: to
Height: 1 m to 5 m
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Features: deciduous
Hidden fields, interally pass variables to right place
Minimum Temp: °Fwarning.png"°F" is not a number.
USDA Zones: to
Sunset Zones:
Flower features:
Aquifoliaceae > Ilex verticillata var. ,

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Ilex verticillata (American Winterberry) is a species of holly native to eastern North America in the United States and southeast Canada, from Newfoundland west to Ontario and Minnesota, and south to Alabama.[1]

It is a shrub growing to 1–5 m tall. It is one of a number of hollies which are deciduous, losing their leaves in the fall. In wet sites, it will spread to form a dense thicket, while in dry soil it remains a tight shrub. The leaves are glossy green, 3.5–9 cm long, 1.5–3.5 cm broad, with a serrated margin and an acute apex. The flowers are small, 5 mm diameter, with five to eight white petals. The fruit is a globose red drupe 6–8 mm diameter, which often persists on the branches long into the winter, giving the plant its English name. Like most hollies, it is dioecious, with separate male and female plants; the proximity of at least one male plant is required to pollenize the females in order to bear fruit.[2][3][4]

The winterberry is prized for the midwinter splash of bright color from densely packed berries, whose visibility is heightened by the loss of foliage; therefore it is popular even where other, evergreen, hollies are also grown.

The species occurs particularly in wetland habitats, but also on dry sand dunes and grassland. The berries are an important food resource for numerous species of birds.[2]

Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

Ilex verticillata, Gray (Prinos verticillatus, Linn.). Black Alder. Winterberry. Shrub, with spreading branches: lvs. obovate to oblanceolate or lanceolate, acuminate or acute, serrate or doubly serrate, usually pubescent beneath, 1 ½ -3 in. long, turning black after frost: all fls. short-stalked: fr. bright red, about ¼ in. across. June, July: fr. in Oct. Canada to Fla., west to Wis. and Mo. Ilex verticillata var. tenuifolia, Torr. (I. bronxensis, Brit.). Lvs. obovate, glabrous or pubescent, thin: fls. and frs. larger. Ilex verticillata var. chrysocarpa, Rob. Fra. bright yellow. Also I. fastigiata, Bicknell, from Nantucket, differing in its fastigiate habit and in the narrower lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate lvs., is probably only a variety of this species.—Very variable in shape and texture of lvs. One of the best hardy shrubs with ornamental frs. remaining on the branches until midwinter, and are rarely eaten by birds.

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It is a tough plant which is easy to grow, with very few diseases or pests. Although wet acidic soils are optimal, the winterberry will grow well in the average garden. Numerous cultivars are available, differing in size and shape of the plant and color of the berry. At least one male plant must be planted in proximity to one or more females for them to bear fruit.


Pests and diseases


Other names that have been used include Black Alder Winterberry, Brook Alder, Canada holly [5], Coralberry, Deciduous Holly, Deciduous Winterberry, False alder, Fever bush, Inkberry, Michigan Holly, Possumhaw, Swamp Holly, Virginian Winterberry, or Winterberry Holly.[citation needed]



  1. Germplasm Resources Information Network: Ilex verticillata
  2. 2.0 2.1 New York Metropolitan Flora: Ilex verticillata
  3. Digital Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador: Aquifoliaceae: Holly Family
  4. Bioimages: Ilex verticillata
  5. Nova Scotia Wild Flora

External links

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