|Mangrove subsp. var.|
Mangroves are trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the tropics and subtropics – mainly between latitudes Template:Degree N and Template:Degree S. The saline conditions tolerated by various species range from brackish water, through pure seawater (30 to 40 ppt), to water of over twice the salinity of ocean seawater, where the salt has become concentrated by evaporation (up to 90 ppt).
The many species of trees and shrubs adapted to saline conditions are not all closely related, and the term "mangrove" may be used for all of them, or more narrowly only for the mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or even more specifically just for mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora.
Mangroves form a characteristic saline woodland or shrubland habitat, called mangrove swamp, mangrove forest, mangrove or mangal. Mangals are found in depositional coastal environments where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high energy wave action. They occur both in estuaries and along open coastlines. Mangroves dominate three quarters of tropical coastlines.
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Mangrove. A name applied to certain small trees that grow along tropical and semi-tropical seacoasts and produce many trunks or rooting shoots whereby the plant holds its place or marches on tide flats. The name is usually restricted to Rhizophora Mangle (Rhizophoraceae), which grows in tropical America and the seacoasts of Florida. The black mangrove is Avicennia nitida (Verbenaceae) of the Gulf coast and tropical America; and the name mangrove is applied to species of this genus in other parts of the world.
Pests and diseases
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Morphological and Physiological Adaptations: Florida mangrove website.
- ↑ Hogarth, Peter J. (1999). The Biology of Mangroves Oxford University Press, Oxford.
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963