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Silt is soil or rock derived granular material of a specific grain size.


Grain size criteria

In the Wentworth scale, silt particles fall between Template:Fraction and Template:Fraction mm (3.9 to 62.5 μm), larger than clay but smaller than a sand. In actuality, silt is chemically distinct from clay, and unlike clay, grains of silt are roughly the same size in all dimensions, and their size ranges overlap. According to the USDA Soil Texture Classification system, the sand-silt distinction is made at the 0.05 mm particle size.[1] The USDA system is also used by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). In the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and the AASHTO Soil Classification system, the sand-silt distinction is made at the 0.075 mm particle size (i.e. material passing the #200 sieve). Silts and clays are distinguished by their plasticity.

silt deposits around house and car in New Orleans left by flooding from a breach in the London Avenue Canal


Silt is produced by the mechanical weathering of rock, as opposed to the chemical weathering that results in clays. This mechanical weathering can be due to grinding by glaciers, eolian abrasion (sandblasting by the wind) as well as water erosion of rocks on the beds of rivers and streams. Silt is sometimes known as 'rock flour' or 'stone dust', especially when produced by glacial action. Mineralogically, silt is composed mainly of quartz and feldspar. Sedimentary rock composed mainly of silt is known as siltstone.

Silt, deposited by annual floods along the Nile River, created the rich and fertile soil that sustained the ancient Egyptian civilization. This silt was depended on for this purpose. A decrease in silt deposited by the Mississippi River throughout the 20th century has contributed to the disappearance of protective wetlands and barrier islands in the delta region surrounding New Orleans.[1]

Environmental impacts

Silt can occur as a deposit or as material transported by a stream or by a current in the ocean. Silt is easily transported in water and is fine enough to be carried long distances by air as 'dust'. Thick deposits of silty material resulting from aeolian deposition are often called loess (a German term) or limon (French). Silt and clay contribute to turbidity in water.

One of the main causes of river siltation in the year 2006 is as a result of slash and burn treatment of tropical forests. When the total ground surface is stripped of vegetation and then seared of all living organisms, the upper soils are vulnerable to both wind and water erosion. In a number of regions of the earth, entire sectors of a country have been rendered unproductive; for example, on the Madagascar high central plateau, comprising approximately ten percent of that country's land area, virtually the entire landscape is sterile of vegetation, with gully erosive furrows typically in excess of 50 meters deep and one kilometer wide. Shifting cultivation is a farming system which sometimes incorporates the slash and burn method in some regions of the world. The resulting sediment load in rivers flowing to the west is ongoing, with most rivers a dark red brown colour. The resulting fish kills in most of these rivers have resulted in the process of extinction of a variety of Madagascar's fish species.

See also


  1. "Particle Size (618.42)". National Soil Survey Handbook Part 618 (42-55) Soil Properties and Qualities. United States Department of Agriculture - Natural Resource Conservation Service. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
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