The sultana (also called the sultanina or sultani) is a type of white, seedless grape of Turkish origin. It is also the name given to the raisin made from it; such sultana raisins are often called simply sultanas or sultanis. These are typically larger than the currants made from Zante grapes, but smaller than "normal" raisins.
Sultana raisins have a delicate and unique flavor and are especially noted for their sweetness and golden colour.
The sultana raisin was traditionally imported to the English-speaking world from the Ottoman Empire, hence the name sultana, from the feminine form of sultan. Turkey and Australia are major producers.
The sultana grape is cultivated in the United States under the name Thompson Seedless, named after William Thompson, a viticulturist who was an early grower in California and is sometimes credited with the variety's introduction. According to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, the two names are synonymous. Virtually all of California raisin production (approximately 97% in 2000) and roughly one-third of California's total grape area is of this variety, making it the single most widely-planted variety.
Not all speakers of English make clear distinctions between different types of dried grapes (raisins, sultanas, currants), and golden-coloured raisins made from other grape varieties may be marketed as sultanas. In addition, virtually all California raisins are produced from the Thompson Seedless grape, even those which, because of different drying processes, are not golden like the traditional sultana raisin. The term sultana is not commonly used to refer to any type of raisin in American English; as most American raisins are from sultana grapes, they are called simply raisins or golden raisins, according to colour. The latter, which at least in colour resemble the traditional sultana raisin, are artificially dried and sulfured, in distinction to "natural" raisins. All non-organic sultana grapes in California and elsewhere are treated with the plant hormone gibberellin.
As well as serving as a snack food without further processing, sultana raisins are used in a variety of dishes, often prepared by soaking in water, fruit juice, or alcohol. The sultana grape is also used to make white wine, in which capacity it is known for sweet blandness.
- ↑ Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. "Plant Facts: Christmas: Raisins". Retrieved on 2006-06-15.
- ↑ Template:Cite encyclopedia
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Template:Cite encyclopedia
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Appellation America. "Thompson Seedless". Retrieved on 2006-06-15.
- ↑ "United States Code of Federal Regulations, title 7, section 999.300". Retrieved on 2006-06-15.
- ↑ United States Department of Agriculture. "California Grape Acreage Report, 2002 Crop". Retrieved on 2006-06-15.
- ↑ "United States Code of Federal Regulations, title 7, section 989.7". Retrieved on 2006-06-15.