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 Avicennia subsp. var.  
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[[]] > Avicennia var. ,

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Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

Avicennia (from Avicenna, the Latin name of an illustrious physician of the Orient, 980-1036). Verbenaceae. Black Mangrove. White Mangrove. Trees or shrubs usually growing in mangrove swamps and on the shores of tropical estuaries, remarkable for the vertical leafless breathing-stems that rise above the soil from their long spreading horizontal roots.

Leaves opposite, entire, coriaceous, persistent: fls. email and inconspicuous in axillary cymes; calyx cup- shaped, deeply 5-lobed; corolla bell-shaped, whitish, 4-lobed ; stamens 4, inserted on the corolla-tube, exserted, bearing ovate, 2-celled anthers; ovary sessile, 1-celled. ovate, tapering upward into a slender 2-lobed style, and containing 4 ovules suspended from a central placenta: fr. ovate, oblique, opening by the ventral suture and exposing the expanding embryo, before dropping off; embryo with broad, fleshy conduplicate cotyledons.— Three species now recognized: A. nilida which reaches S. Fla. and La., A. officinalis of Polynesia and the E. Indies, and A. africana of the west coast of Af r. Planted on the shores of estuaries to prevent washing by tidal currents, they collect floating debris by means of their erect breathing-sts., and by this means aid in extending the shoreline seaward.

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