|Staphylea subsp. var.||Bladdernut|
Staphylea (Bladdernut)(Jonjoli) is a small genus of 10 or 11 species of flowering plants in the family Staphyleaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The highest species diversity is in China, where four species occur.
They are large shrubs, occasionally small trees, growing to 2-5 m tall. The leaves are deciduous, arranged in opposite pairs, and pinnate, usually with three leaflets, but 3-7 in S. pinnata and 3-5 in S. colchica. The flowers are produced in drooping terminal panicles 5-10 cm long, with 5-15 flowers on each panicle; the individual flowers are about 1 cm long, with the five sepals and petals similar in size and in their white or pale pink colour. The fruit is an inflated papery two- or three-lobed capsule 3-10 cm long, containing a few small nut-like seeds.
Several species are grown as ornamental plants for their flowers and peculiar bladder-like fruit. The popular Staphylea × elegans is a hybrid of unknown origin, probably between S. colchica and S. pinnata.
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Staphylea (Greek, staphyle, cluster, referring to the inflorescence). Staphyleaceae, formerly referred to the Celastraceae. Bladder-nut. Ornamental woody plants chiefly grown for their attractive white flowers and for their handsome foliage, and also for the inflated pod-like fruit.
Deciduous shrubs or small trees, with smooth striped bark: lvs. opposite, 3-7-foliolate; lfts. serrulate, like the lvs. stipulate: fls. perfect, 5-merous in terminal panicles; sepals and petals 5, of about the same length, upright; stamens 5; pistils 2-3, usually connate below: fr. a 2-3-lobed, inflated, membranous caps., with 1 or few subglobose rather large, bony seeds in each cell.— Eleven species in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.
The bladder-nuts are upright shrubs or small trees with handsome bright or light green foliage and ornamental white or pinkish flowers in nodding clusters followed by bladder-like fruits conspicuous by their size and pale green color. The species are all inhabitants of temperate regions, and S. trifolia, S. Bumalda and S. pinnata are hardy North, while S. colchica, S. Bolanderi, and S. holocarpa are hardy at least as far north as Massachusetts; S. emodi is more tender and seems not to be in cultivation in this country. They are all desirable shrubs and flower in early summer after the leaves except S. holocarpa which blooms in spring before or with the leaves. They are well adapted for shrubberies, but all except S. Bumalda are liable to become bare and unsightly at the base and are therefore not to be recommended for single specimens. S. holocarpa is perhaps the most beautiful species in bloom; also S. elegans, S. colchica, and S. Bumalda have very handsome flowers. S. colchica blooms at an early age and is sometimes forced, but S. holocarpa is probably even better adapted for that purpose. Staphyleas grow well in almost any kind of soil and position, but do best in a somewhat moist rich earth and partly shaded situation. They are always interesting although not showy. Propagation is by seeds, layers, and suckers. Greenwood cuttings from forced plants root readily.
S. elegans, Zabel. Intermediate between and supposed to be a hybrid of S. pinnata and S. colchica: lfts. usually 5: panicles very large and nodding. A very free-flowering variety with pinkish tinged fls. is var. Hessei, Zabel.—S. emodi, Wall. Shrub or small tree: lfts. 3, oval to oblong, 2-6 in. long; stalk of terminal lft. about 1 in. long: fls. in peduncled, pendulous, raceme-like panicles: fr. 2-3 in. long. Himalayas. CH
Pests and diseases
- Staphylea bolanderi (Sierra Bladdernut). Western North America.
- Staphylea bumalda (Japanese Bladdernut). Eastern Asia.
- Staphylea colchica (Colchis Bladdernut). Southwestern Asia.
- Staphylea emodi (Himalayan Bladdernut). Himalaya.
- Staphylea forrestii. China.
- Staphylea holocarpa. China.
- Staphylea pinnata (European Bladdernut). Europe.
- Staphylea pringlei. Mexico.
- Staphylea shweliensis. China.
- Staphylea trifolia (American Bladdernut). Eastern North America.
Some botanists include the closely related genus Turpinia in Staphylea.