|Chaenomeles subsp. var.|
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Chaenomeles japonica. It has been shown recently that Thunberg, when describing his Pyrus japonica, had the species now called C. Maulei in mind: therefore the name C. japonica, Lindl., must replace the name C. Maulei, and the species called here C. japonica must bear the name C. lagenaria, Koidzumi (Cydonia lagenaria Loisel.); and C. cathayensis should be a variety of it: Var. cathayensis, Rehd. (C. cathayensis, Schneid.). Lvs. narrower, lanceolate, pubescent beneath while young. Cent. China. Another variety is: Var. Wilsonii, Rehd. Lvs. covered beneath with a persistent fulvous woolly tomentum. W. China.
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Chaenomeles (Greek chainein, to gape, to split, and melea, apple: the fruit was supposed by Thunberg to split into five valves). Rosaceae, subfamily Pomeae. Woody plants, grown chiefly for their handsome brightly colored flowers appearing early in spring; formerly commonly included in Cydonia.
Shrubs or small trees, sometimes spiny: lvs. sub- persistent or deciduous, alternate, short-petioled, serrate: fls. solitary or fascicled, before or after the lvs., sometimes partly staminate; calyx-lobes entire or serrate; petals 5; stamens numerous: styles 5, connate at the base: fr. 5-celled, each cell with many seeds.—Four species in China and Japan.
These are ornamental plants, nearly hardy North except C. sinensis, which can be grown only South. C. japonica and C. Maulei, with handsome glossy foliage and abundant flowers in early spring, varying in all shades from pure white to deep scarlet, are highly decorative, and especially adapted for borders of shrubberies and for low ornamental hedges. The fruit of all species can be made into conserves. They thrive in almost any soil, but require sunny position to bloom abundantly. Propagated by seeds, usually stratified and sown in spring: also readily increased by root- cuttings made in fall or early spring, and rarer kinds or less vigorous-growing varieties are grafted in the greenhouse in early spring, on stock of the Japanese or common quince; they grow also from cuttings of half-ripened or nearly mature wood, under glass, and from layers.CH
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C. cathayensis is native to western China and has the largest fruit of the genus, pear-shaped, 10–15 cm long and 6–9 cm wide. The flowers are usually white or pink. The leaves are 7–14 cm long.
C. japonica (Maule's Quince or Japanese Quince) is native to Japan, and has small fruit, apple-shaped, 3–4 cm diameter. The flowers are usually red, but can be white or pink. The leaves are 3–5 cm long.
C. speciosa (Chinese Flowering Quince; syn.: Chaenomeles laganaria, Cydonia lagenaria, Cydonia speciosa, Pyrus japonica) is native to China and Korea, and has apple-shaped fruit 5–6 cm diameter. The flowers are red. The leaves are 4–7 cm long.
Four named hybrids have been bred in gardens. The commonest is C. × superba (hybrid C. speciosa × C. japonica), while C. × vilmoriniana is a hybrid C. speciosa × C. cathayensis, and C. × clarkiana is a hybrid C. japonica × C. cathayensis. The hybrid C. × californica is a tri-species hybrid (C. × superba × C. cathayensis). Numerous named cultivars of all of these hybrids are available in the horticultural trade.
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963
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