Citrus grandis

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Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

Citrus grandis, Osbeck (C. Aurantium var. grandis, Linn. C. Aurantium var. decumana, Linn. C. decumana, Linn.). Grapefruit (or Pomelo). Shaddock. Pummelo. Fig. 975. A large round-topped tree, with regular oranches: spines, if present, slender and flexible, rather blunt: lvs. large, dark glossy green above, oval or elliptic-oval, with a broadly rounded base; petiole broadly winged, more or less cordate: fls. axillary, borne singly or in clusters, large, white in the bud; petals white on both sides; stamens 20-25, with large linear anthers; ovary globose, sharply delimited from the deciduous style: fr. very large, 4-6 in. diam., globose, oblate spheroid or broadly pear-shaped, smooth, with 11- 14 segms., pale lemon-yellow when ripe, peel ¼-½in. thick, white and pithy inside; seeds usually very numerous, large, flattened and wrinkled, white inside.—The grapefruit (or pomelo) is now one of the most appreciated citrous frs. grown in the U.S. The culture of this delicious fr. was limited to the Fla. pioneers until some 25 years ago, when the first commercial plantations were made. Since then, there has been a steady increase in the area devoted to this fr. in Fla., and plantings have been made in Calif., Ariz., and the West Indies. The pummelo of India, called shaddock in Fla., is not grown on a commercial scale, but occurs in many tropical countries. The grapefruit is usually served as a breakfast fr. cut in half and seeded. It is a vigorous grower, even on light sandy loam soils and is coming increasingly into use as a stock upon which to graft other citrous frs. The young trees are tender, but the mature ones are well protected by a dense canopy of lvs. and may stand more cold than an orange tree. The grapefruit is much like the orange in its ability to resist cold and is much less easily forced into a new growth by a few warm days in winter than the lime or lemon. The varieties of grapefruit grown in the U. S. have almost all originated in Fla., where the early settlers prop, this tree from seed, thereby originating many slightly different varieties, the more important of which are listed here: Duncan. Fr. large, keeps well on the tree, seeds few: tree rather hardy. Hall (Silver Cluster). Frs. medium size, produced in large clusters; seeds numerous. Triumph. Fr. small or medium size, early: tree rather tender. Does not succeed well when budded on sour orange stock. McCarty. Fr. large, late, borne singly; seeds numerous. A variety recently found in the Indian River region of Fla. Besides these standard varieties of grapefruit of the Fla. seedling type a large number of other similar varieties are cult. locally in the state, such as the Bowen, Excelsior. Josselyn, Leonardy, Manville, May. McKinley, Standard (or Indian River), Walters, and many others. The following varieties differ more or less widely from the old Fla. seedling type. Marsh. Frs. large, depressed globose, often seedless; pulp subacid, less bitter than in the other varieties. This variety, though it originated as a seedling in Fla., is best adapted to cult. in Calif., where many of the ordinary Fla. varieties do not succeed well. Pernambuco. Frs. large, skin very smooth, light-colored, late; seeds abundant. Intro. from Pernambuco, Brazil, to the U. S. by the U. S. Dept. of Agric.—The shaddocks or pummelos are seldom cult, in the U. S. The Tresca variety from the Bahama Isls. has large pyriform frs., with pink flesh of good flavor and abundant seeds: the tree is tender. A pummelo from near Canton, China, is imported into San Francisco on a small scale by the Chinese resident there. The frs. are pyriform, very thick-skinned, not pink within; seeds numerous. Some seedlings of this variety are to be found at various points in Calif. They are very leafy and of vigorous growth, and make excellent stocks upon which to graft other citrous frs. Many other sorts of pummelos are known from Asia and the Malayan Archipelago and some have been intro. for trial by the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction of the U. S. Dept. of Agric. The true grapefruit seems to be scarcely known outside of U. S. and the W. Indies. See Grapefruit and Pomelo. CH

The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.


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