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Clematis hybrid
Habit: vines
Height:  ?
Lifespan: perennialsn
Origin:  ?
Exposure: vines in sun, roots coolsn
Water: regularsn
Features: flowerssn
USDA Zones:  ?
Sunset Zones: vary by speciessn
[[{{{domain}}}]] > [[{{{superregnum}}}]] > Plantae > [[{{{subregnum}}}]] > [[{{{superdivisio}}}]] > [[{{{superphylum}}}]] > Magnoliophyta > [[{{{phylum}}}]] > [[{{{subdivisio}}}]] > [[{{{subphylum}}}]] > [[{{{infraphylum}}}]] > [[{{{microphylum}}}]] > [[{{{nanophylum}}}]] > [[{{{superclassis}}}]] > Magnoliopsida > [[{{{subclassis}}}]] > [[{{{infraclassis}}}]] > [[{{{superordo}}}]] > Ranunculales > [[{{{subordo}}}]] > [[{{{infraordo}}}]] > [[{{{superfamilia}}}]] > Ranunculaceae > [[{{{subfamilia}}}]] > [[{{{supertribus}}}]] > [[{{{tribus}}}]] > [[{{{subtribus}}}]] > Clematis {{{subgenus}}} {{{sectio}}} {{{series}}} {{{species}}} {{{subspecies}}} var. {{{cultivar}}}

Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture
Purple clematis
Clematis montana

Clematis (Greek name of a climbing plant). Ranunculaceae. Familiar garden plants, prized for their handsome and often very showy flowers followed in many species by attractive feathery-tailed fruits.

Climbing vines, or erect or ascending perennial herbs, more or less woody: lvs. opposite, mostly slender petioled, usually pinnately compound, lobed, or in some species entire and rarely sessile: sepals usually 4 or 5, sometimes more, valvate in the bud, rarely imbricate, petaloid; petals none (or small in Atragene section, usually considered as petaloid staminodes); stamens many; pistils many: achenes in a head, 1-seeded; style persistent, long, plumose, silky or naked. Fig. 983.—About 150 species of very wide geographical distribution, most abundant in temperate regions. About 20 species found native in N. Amer. and about 80 in E. Asia. Les Clematites, Alphonse Lavallee, Paris, 1884; referred to below by "Lav."—The Clematis as a Garden Flower, Thomas Moore and George Jackman, London, 1872; referred to below by "M. & J."—Clematises, Dr. Jules le Belc, in Bull, de la Societe d'Hort. De la Sarthe; republished in The Garden (vol. 53), June-Oct., 1898.—O. Kuntze, Monogr. der Gattung Clematis in Verb. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. 26 (1885).—A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1:4-9, 1895.—Finet & Gagnepain, Contrib. Fl. As. Orient 1:1-42 (1905).

The kinds of clematis

The hybrid varieties of Clematis, commonly known as the large-flowering sorts, are, when successfully grown, among the most beautiful of hardy climbing plants. The commercial propagation and growing of most of the large-flowering varieties, however, is attended with so many difficulties and disappointments that it has never been very generally attempted by nurserymen or florists in this country. At the present time there are scarcely half a dozen houses on this continent who attempt the propagation of clematis to any considerable extent, and it is only within the past thirty years that clematises have been commercially grown even by this limited number. Prior to that, practically all of the large-flowering clematises planted in this country were imported from Europe, the major part being supplied by Holland, whose moist atmosphere and black soil produces large, vigorous plants, out whose climatic conditions are so entirely different from those usually found in this country that the plants often failed to adapt themselves to their new surroundings, and did not thrive to the extent that their good size and vigorous condition seemed to give promise.

Clematises hybridize so readily that the number of varieties resultant from various crosses forms a long list. But while so many have been dignified with names and places in the catalogues of nurserymen, yet the varieties of large-flowering clematis that have proved so valuable as to secure permanent places for themselves in popular demand can almost be counted upon one's fingers. There are many varieties possessing most beautiful shades and variations of coloring that fail to attain popularity, chiefly on account of deficiency in two essential characteristics—vigorous habit of growth and abundance of bloom. Clematis Jackmanii, purple, originated in 1862, by Mr. George Jackman, was one of the first hybrid clematises introduced, and still stands as the most popular, and, of its color, the most valuable variety yet known. The variety, Madame Edouard Andre, a deep rich crimson, is distinct and novel, being at this time about the best large-flowering sort of a truly crimson shade. It is not quite so vigorous habit as the Jackmanii, but its flowers are similarly massed, though not produced in quite such profusion. Clematis Madame Baron Veillard is a distinct variety. It is of exceedingly vigorous habit, and the flowers are quite freely produced, though, being more dispersed over the plant, they do not make so much of a show as do varieties whose flowers are closely massed. The flowers are of very large size and of a light rose-color, shaded with lilac. Of white varieties, Henryi, Mrs. George Jackman and Lanuginosa Candida, all of them introduced long ago, still remain about the most desirable ones known. Ramona, deep sky-blue, is a variety which originated some twenty- five years ago. It is of extra-large size often 9 to 10 inches across, of very vigorous habit and free- flowering.

Of double-flowered varieties, Duchess of Edinburgh, white, is the best known in this country, and about the most desirable. John Gould Veitch is a double sort with flowers of lavender-blue, but has seemed a shy bloomer and of weak habit. Mme. Grange (purplish violet), Star of India (purple), Velutina Purpurea (purple), and Viticella Venosa (reddish purple), are all desirable varieties.

Although they are in reality slightly less hardy than the Florida and Patens types, varieties of the Lanuginosa, Viticella and Jackmanii types, which produce their flowers from young growing wood, are recommended for northern localities. Plants of these types, even if frozen back to the ground, will still produce a good show of flowers, since, as stated, they bloom from the recent vigorous wood, even if the old tops are killed. Indeed, they need to be pruned back considerably anyway to induce a free growth of young vigorous blooming wood. With plants of the Patens and Florida types, however, which blossom from year-old wood, a severe freezing back of the plants would destroy the crop of flowers for the year.

Of the small-flowering varieties, Clematis paniculata (white), introduced from Japan, has proved to be a wonderfully valuable acquisition in this country, and has become exceedingly popular. It is of remarkably vigorous habit, often making a growth of 20 to 25 feet in a season. It seems thus far to be entirely free from disease, is delightfully fragrant, and so floriferous that the blossoms form a dense sheet of bloom, remaining in full beauty for several weeks. The foliage is very thick and heavy, thus making it very desirable for covering porches and arbors.

Crispa (blue) and texensis (red) are species with very pretty, bell-shaped flowers. They are easily grown and do well in almost all situations.

The perennial, non-climbing varieties of clematis are most pleasing border plants, succeeding well in all ordinary soils and making a rich show of bloom at their flowering season. Davidiana (blue) and recta (white) are about the best known and most desirable varieties of this class. CH

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Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture


The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.


Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

The propagation of clematis throughout Europe is usually effected by grafting pieces of well-ripened, year-old wood upon roots of almost any of the more vigorous-growing species, Clematis Flammula being most commonly used. In this country, on the contrary, the method commonly pursued is by means of cuttings from young wood, stuck in sand, with gentle bottom heat, usually during May or June. So far as concerns the comparative vigor and desirability of plants produced by these two methods, there is small choice between them. Propagation by cuttings is, in this country, the more rapid and economical way, and further, it removes the possibility, sometimes realized in grafted plants, of sprouts being thrown up from the roots, and, if in the hands of an uninformed amateur, entirely "running out" the variety grafted in; thus considerable annoyance is avoided.

The most common method of propagation is by grafting. Roots of C. Flammula or C. Viticella are used; the cions are taken from plants that have been grown under glass, and are used before the wood is entirely ripe. Cions taken from plants grown in the garden in summer are rarely successful. The grafts, in pots or trays, are grown in a moist coolhouse, over gentle bottom heat. Another method of propagation, involving less labor but usually successful, is to take cuttings of nearly ripe wood, grown under glass, and treat them as the cions first above mentioned, without the roots. The latter method is practised preferably in summer in gentle hotbeds; shading, spraying, and later on airing, must be strictly attended to. Layering is practised when large old stools are at hand. The knife is not used in the operation, but a twist of the stem will split the inner bark lengthwise. Every other joint is thus treated, pegged down, and covered with soil. It is best to leave the layers undisturbed until the following spring. Many of the species are often propagated by seed, and many new varieties have thus been secured. The number of hybrids is almost countless; in this account are carefully recorded those in the American trade which are traceable to their origin. The clematis is subject to a very serious disease, due to the depredations of a nematode worm in the roots. This trouble is most serious under glass and alongside buildings where the ground does not freeze deep. The parasite is probably distributed in the soil adhering to pot-grown plants. It is probable that hard freezing kills the parasite. There is no remedy; so far as known, for affected plants. Using only soil which has been frozen is to be recommended to the propagator. CH

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Pests and diseases

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Flowers of Clematis vitalba
Seed heads of Clematis vitalba growing in a hedge, showing why it is known colloquially as "Old man's beard"
Closeup of a Clematis flower
Macro of seeds

A partial list of specieswp:

Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

The following are supposed to be hybrids of this species: C cylindrica, Sims (xC. crispa, C. integrifolia var. diversifolia, Hort. C. integrifolia var. pinnata, Hort.). Lvs. more or less irregularly lobed or pinnate: fls. solitary, cylindric-campanulate with the sepals more or less recurved from the middle, blue or bluish-violet. B.M. 1160. Lav. 13. G.W. 14, pp. 562-3. R.H. 1856:341. Here also belongs probably C. divaritica, Jacq., with short-petioled pinnate lvs. and blue, less spreading sepals.

A hybrid of this species is C. Jouiniana, Schneid. (var. Davidiana XC. Vitalba). Half-climbing, to 6ft.: fls. in large panicles, bluish white, first tubular with the sepals finally spreading. G.C. III. 51:34. Another hybrid is C. Davidiana hybrida, Lem. (var. Davidiana x C. stans) of which Lemoine advertises several named forms varying from light to deep blue; very floriferous.

The following are garden varieties: Var. albiflora, Kuntze. Fls. white.

Var. rubra, Hort. Fls. purple.—Var. rubra grandiflora, Jackman, has larger bright crimson fls. and 6 sepals. F.S. 20:2053 (1783). F. 1872:265.

Var. kermesina, Lem. (C. kermesina. Hort.). Fls. of bright wine red color, purple being absent. Gn. 39:30.

Var. lilacina-floribunda, Hort. (C. lilacina-floribunda, Hort. C. floribunda, Hort.). Fls. pale gray-lilac, conspicuously veined. Gn. 18, p. 389 (note).—An abundant bloomer. Produced in an English garden in 1880.

Lady Bovill. Jackman (C. Lady Bovill, Hort.). Fls. cup- formed, sepals being concave and little or not at all recurved at the ends, fls. 4 in. across; sepals 4-6, grayish blue; stamens light brown. M. & J. 15. R.H. 1876:190.

Var. mormorata, Jackman. (C. marmorata, Hort.), Fls. rather small, with 4 broad sepals, light grayish blue with darker veins, 3 longitudinal bars. M. & J. 1, f. 2; same plate in F.S. 20:2050-55 (2008). F. 1872:265. Hybrids of C. Viticella which are closely allied to that type:

C. eriostemon, Decne.( x C. integrifolia; C. Hendersonii, Henderson. C. Chandleri, Hort.) Fig. 985. St. and habit of C.Viticella: lfts. and fls much like C. integrifolia: climbing 8-10 ft.: 4 blue sepals, spreading, reflexed at the tips. R.H. 1852 341. F.S. 13:1364 var. venosa). Lav.12. Here belong also: intermedia, Bonamy, smaller, with more pubescent branchlets paler fls. C. Bergeronii, Lav., resembling more C. integrifolia: lvs. usually entire: fls. pink about 2 in. across terminal panicles. Lav.10. C. distorta, Lav. with rosy-lilac twisted sepals. Lav.11. C. Boskoop, Hort. (C. Boskoop Seedling Hort. syn. C. V. X C. Integrifolia). A new race in 1892 growing 3-5 ft.:fls Blue, lavender, rose reddish rose.

C. violacea, DC (X C. Flammula). Fls. in several- to many-fld. terminal panicles, pale violet, about 1 in. across; petals sometimes 6. Here belongs also: C. Othello, Cripps (syn. C. V. var. rubra X C. Flammula). Fls. of medium size, of a deep velvety purple; continues blooming until Oct.—C. rubro-marginata, Jouin (C. Flammula var. rubromarginata, Cripp.). Similar to C. Flammula; sepals white bordered reddish violet.

C. parviflora, DC. (x C. campaniflora; C. revoluta, Deaf.). Fls. white, small, scarcely 1 in. across, sometimes larger: achenes with the tail usually pubescent at the base. A.P. De Candolle, Pl. Rar. Geneve. 12.—Of no ornamental value.

C.venosa, Krampen ( x C. florida; C. florida var. venosa, Lav.). Similar to C. florida, but petals obovate. Lav. 6. R.H. 1860, p. 183 G 2-251 G.Z. 6:160. F.S. 13:1364. Here also belongs Louise Carriere; fls. lilac with paler veins. R.H. 1880:10 and several forms described by Carriere as C. contorta, C. atroviolacea and C. Viticella alba. R.H. 1879:350. For other hybrids of this species see C. Guascoi, Lem., under C. patens, C. splendida under C. lanuginosa as form of C. Jackmanii.

Belle of Woking. A hybrid form: fls. very full and double; sepals purple.

John Gould Veitch (C. Veitchii. Hort.). Fls. velvet, double, resembling var. Fortunei, except in the color of- the sepals. From Japanese gardens. F.S. 18:1875-6.

Hybrids of this species are: C. venosa, Krampen, see C. Viticella; C. Lawsoniana, see C. lanuginosa.

Forms of C. lanuginosa are:

Var. candida, Lemoine (C. Candida, Hort.). Like the type, except that the simple lvs. and lfts. of the compound lvs. are much larger, and the fls. are larger, being 7-8 in. across, and white with a purplish shading around the margins. F.M. 5:310. V. 6:225.— Perhaps a hybrid of C. patens.

Var. nivea, Lemoine (C. nivea, Hort.). Sepals 6-8, narrowish, pure white; anthers pale brown.—Thought to be of same origin as the above var.

alba magna, Jackman. Fls. very large, pure white, with about6 broad sepals and purplish brown anthers. G.C. II. 3:685.

Lady Caroline Nevill, Cripps. Fls. often 7 in. across; sepals 6, nearly white, with mauve - colored stripe down center of each. Gn. 46, p. 33.—- One of the finest light-colored varieties.

Princess of Wales, Jackman. Fls. 6 in. across; sepals 8, satiny bluish mauve, very broad. G.C. III. 27:53. Gn. 59, p. 366.

Marie Lefebvre, Cripps. Resembles the last, but has 8 sepals, more pointed, and darker in shade.

Perfection, Froebel. Fls. very large; sepals 8, very broad, lilac-mauve. R.B. 6:193.

Sensation, Cripps. Fls. like the type, but with 6-7 grayish blue sepals, 6 in. across.

Madame Emile Sorbet, Paillet. Fls. bright blue.

Madame Van Houtte, Cripps. Late-blooming; sepals pale blue, becoming white.

Madame Thibaut. Fls. very abundant.— Thought to be a hybrid with C. Viticella.

The President, Noble. A rich violet- blue fl.

Excelsior, Cripps. Fls. double; sepals grayish purple, with a reddish bar down the center of each. F.S. 20:2055.

violacea. Noble. Fls. violet-blue, 7 in. across. F.M. 1876:217.

Robert Hanbury, Jackman. Sepals bluish lilac, flushed at the edges with red, and the bar slightly tinted with red. Gn. 16:128.

This species has given rise to numerous beautiful hybrids which in many cases are the product of so much intercrossing that it is impossible to recognize the exact parentage. By far the most important group of these hybrids may be classed under C, Jackmanii, which, however, by some is considered not a hybrid, but a species intro. from Japan.

C. Jackmanii, Moore (C. lanuginosa X C. Hendersonii and C. lanuginosa X C. Viticella. C. hakonensis, Franch. & Sav.). Fig. 987. Habit and lvs. of C. lanuginosa: fls. flat, 5-6 in. broad, usually in 3's and forming panicles at the ends of the branches; sepals 4-6. very broad, velvety purple, with a ribbed bar down the center; broad, central tuft of pale green stamens. Var. alba, Hort. Fls. nearly pure white. Var. rubella, Jackman. Fls. deep velvety reddish violet. Var. superba, Hort. Fls. violet- purple, resembling C. Madame Grange.

Also the following hybrids are to be classed under C. Jackmanii: modesta, Modeste - Guerin (syn. C.V.x C.lanuginosa). Fls. well expanded, large, bright blue, bars deeper colored. fulgens, Simon Louis (syn. C.V. var. grandiflora x C. lanuginosa). Sepals 5-6, rather narrow, dark purple to blackish crimson, velvety, edges somewhat serrate, purpurea- hybrida, Modeste- Guerin (syn. C. V. X C. Jackmanii). Fls. 4-6 in. across, deep purple-violet, with red veins, but not barred. rubro -violacea, Jackman (C. lanuginosa x C. Viticella var. atrorubens). Lvs. pinnate, with ovate-acuminate or sometimes ovate-lanceolate lfts.: sepals 4-6, maroon-purple with a reddish bar; stamens greenish. Var. Prince of Wales, Hort., has fls. of lighter tint. La France, Gegu (C. lanuginose X C. Jackmanii). Lvs. smooth: buds woolly; sepals deep cobalt-blue, pointed, with wavy edges. Reine des Bleues, Boisselot (same cross as the last). Fls. large, blue, with broad, recurved sepals, detoniensis, Lem. (same cross). Fls. 8-9 in. across; sepals 8, delicate lavender-blue. splendida, Simon-Louis (x C. Viticella). Fls. very dark purple, changing to reddish violet.

Gipsy Queen, Cripps. Deep violet. Alexandra, Jackman. Reddish violet. Star of India, Cripps. Five in. across, purple, barred with red. tunbridgensis, Cripps. Reddish purple, barred with light blue. Lav. 4 bis. magnifica, Jackman. Rich purple, shaded with crimson, 3 bars of red in each sepal. Madame Grange, Hort. Sepals very concave, purple-crimson. Mrs. James Bateman, Noble. Palo lavender; a probable cross of C. J. with C. lanuginosa. Mrs. Moore, Jackman. Eight to 9 in. across, sepals rather narrow, white. Thomas Moore, Jackman. As large as the last, rich violet, with white stamens. Madame Baron Veillard, Baron Veil. Rose-lilac. Madame Andre, carmine-violet. telutina-purpurea, Jackman. Fls. 4-6 in. across, usually 4, sometimes 5 or 6 sepals, blackish purple. Francois Morel, Morel. Fls. 4 in. across; sepals usually 4, bright violet- red. Ville de Lyon, Morel. Fls. 5 in. across; sepals usually 6, broad, deep amaranth-red.

Other hybrids of C. lanuginosa are the following:

C. Durandii, Kuntze (C. integrifolia or possibly C. Jackmanii X C. integrifolia). Upright, to 6 ft.: lvs. simple, petioled: fls. and infl. similar to C. Jackmanii; fls. blue, 4-5 in. broad, flat, with usually 4, rarely 5 or 6 recurved sepals. June-Sept. Gn. 49:98. Gng. 5:276. G. 31:257.—Here belongs probably C. Pellieri. Carr., though the author gives C. lanuginosa Xrecta as the parents. R.H. 1880, p. 228.

C. Lawsoniana, Anderson-Henry (x C. florida var. Fortunei). Fig. 989 (adapted from Floral Magazine, 1872). Fls. very large; sepals 6-8, broad, rose-purple, marked with darker veins. Aug.- Nov. G. 33:411. Var. Symesiana (C. Symesiana, Anderson- Henry. X C. florida var. Fortunei). Fls. 7 in. across; sepals 6-8, pale mauve; a profuse bloomer. Var. Henryi (C. Henryi, Anderson- Henry). Fig. 988. Robust plant; free bloomer: fls. creamy white, becoming fully expanded when grown in the open sun or under glass. Aug.-Nov. Gn.M. 13:348. G.M. 43:318.—It resembles more the lanuginosa parent, It is not to be confused with C. Henryii, Oliv., a Chinese species allied to C. orientalis and not in cult.

C. Gablensii (X C. patens; C. patens var. Gablenzii, Hort.). Lvs. simple or 3-parted, ovate, subcordate: fls. large deep violet-blue; sepals 6-8. G.Z. 14:80.—Here belong also:

Otto Froebel, Lemoine. Lvs. leathery, simple or 3-parted: fls. of fleshy texture, grayish white, sometimes becoming bluish; sepals 8, blunt, broad; anthers brownish. Imperatrice Eugenie, Carre (C. l. var. pallid x C. patens). Lvs. simple or 3-parted; lfts. broad and woolly: fls. 8-9 in. across, with 8 broad, white sepals. Jeanne d' Arc, Dauvesse. Same cross as last and much like it, but the sepals are grayish white, with 3 blue bars down the center of each. Gloire de St. Julien, Carre. (x C. patens var. plena). Plant much like C. lanuginosa, but with larger fls.: sepals 6-8, white or pale gray at first; stamens yellow. Gem. Baker (X C. Standishii). Lvs. 3-parted or simple: fls. like C. lanuginosa in form; grayish blue.

The following other garden varieties or crosses belong here:

Mrs. James Baker. Sepals nearly white, ribbed with dark carmine. Miss Bateman, Noble. Fls. more compact than the type, 6 in. across; sepals ovate, shortly acuminate, pure white, with cream-colored bars; anthers brown. Probably of hybrid origin; allied to var. Standishii. Stella. Jackman. Fls. not so large as the last; sepals deep mauve, with a red bar down the center of each. F.S. 22:2341. Amalia, Sieb. Sepals 6 or more, oblong-lanceolate, light lilac. From Japanese gardens. F.S, 10:1051. Lord Lanesborough, Noble. Sepals bluish lilac, each with a metallic purple bar.—A good variety to gradually force to blossom in the greenhouse by March. Lady Lanesborough, Noble. Sepals silver- gray, the bar being lighter colored.—It will blossom in March in the greenhouse. Marie, Simon-Louis. Fls. darker than the type. Mrs. G. Jackman, Jackman. Sepals blush-white with indistinct wine-red bars. Gn. 16:128. The Queen, Jackman. Fls. rather compact, the sepals being broader than the type. John Murray, Jackman. Habit and foliage bolder than the type: fls. somewhat later. Gn. 46:32. Fair Rosamond, Jackman. Sepals apiculate, broader than the type, and of the same color. F.S. 22:2342. Gn. 16:128. Countess of Lovelace, Jackman. Fls. double, blue- violet; sepals much imbricated. In the second crop of blooms the fls. are single, as is often the case in other double varieties. Albert Victor, Noble. Fls. much like the type, but large and more compact. —Suitable for forcing under glass. Duchess of Edinburgh, Jackman. Fls. double, white, strongly imbricated. Marcel Moser, Moser. Fls. 7 in. across; sepals 8, mauve with a reddish violet bar. J. 1897:104; 1900, p. 85. Nelly Moser, Moser. Fls. 5 in. across; sepals 8, mauve-pink, with a darker red bar. R.H. 1898:236. Louis van Houtte, Hort. Semi-double, rosy white. Vesta, Endl. Sepals gray; anthers red. Gt. 39:1333. Gn. 9:408. R.B. 6:193. Helena, Sieb. Fla. pure white, with yellow stamens. F.S. 11:1117. I.H. 1:21. R.H. 1855:341. Louisa, Sieb. Fls. pure white, with purple stamens. F.S. 10:1052. monstrosa. Planch. Fls. semi-double, pure white. F.S. 9:900. R.H. 1856:9. Sophia, Sieb. Sepals deep lilac-purple on the edges, with light green bars. F. 8.8:852. I.H. 1:21. B.H. 4:97. R.H. 1855:461. violacea, Lem. Fls. violet-blue; stamens yellow. I.H. 7:254. Some double-flowered varieties which possibly belong here are: Snowdrift, with white, very double fls. Gn. 49, p. 189. M.D.G. 1898:496. Ostrich Plume, also white and very double with narrower wavy sepals. M.D.G. 1898:496. Waverly, blue, semi double. M.D.G. 1898:497.

Hybrids of this species are the following: C. Guascoi, Lem. (X C. Viticella). Branches pubescent: lfts. 5, nearly glabrous: fls. solitary, violet-purple, 3 in. across, with 4-6 sepals, strongly 3- nerved, tomentose outside. J.H. 4:117. I.H. 7:226.—C. franco- furtensis. Lav., supposed to be a hybrid of C. Jackmanii (C. hakonensis) and C. patens, is hardly different. Lav. 7 bis.—C. lanuginosa X C. patens, see the preceding species.—C. florida X C. patens. Some believe that C. patens var. Standishii represents this cross. CH

The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.


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