|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Cordyline (club-like, referring to the fleshy roots). Liliaceae. Dracena. Dracena Palm. Greenhouse plants closely related to Dracaena; planted in the open in California and similar climates.
Stems tall, often woody and palm-like, bearing large crowded Lvs., to the striking variegation of which the group owes its value: fls. panicled; stamens 6; pedicels articulated; perianth 6-parted; ovary 3-celled: fr. a berry.—Cult, for the ornamental foliage. The horticultural forms and names have become very numerous. The various species are in the trade under Dracaema, which see for a key to the species of both genera combined. From Dracaena, Cordyline differs in the ovary containing several ovules in each cell, and the solitary pedicels being provided with a 3bracted involucre. In the following paragraphs, the initial D. indicates that the plant in question is known in the trade as a Dracaena, and C. that it is known as a Cordyline (see Dracaena). For a monograph, see Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. 14:538 (1875).
Of cordylines or dracaenas, propagation is usually effected by cutting the ripened stems or trunks, from which all leaves have been removed, into pieces from 2 to 4 inches long. These are laid either in very light soil or in sand in the propagating-bed, where they receive a bottom heat of about 80°, being barely covered with sand or moss (Fig. 1052). The eyes soon start into growth, and, as soon as they have developed about six leaves, these shoots are cut off with a small heel and again placed in the propagating-bed until rooted, after which they are potted off into small pots in light soil, kept close until they become established. They are then shifted on into larger pots as soon as well rooted. They delight in a mixture of three parts good turfy loam and one part well-decayed cow-manure, with a liberal sprinkling of sharp sand. A warm, moist atmosphere suits them best while growing, but towards fall the finished plants must be gradually exposed to full sunshine and a dry atmosphere, which develops their high colors. The kinds enumerated below are such as are mainly grown in large quantities for decorative purposes, and are sold principally during the winter months, especially during the holiday season, when plants with bright-colored foliage are always in strong demand: C. amabilis.—A strong-growing form with broad green foliage, which is prettily variegated with white and deep rose. One of the hardiest varieties, either for decorations in winter or for outdoor work, vases, and the like in summer. D.fragrans,—An African species with broad, massive, deep green foliage which makes noble decorative plants, being frequently grown into specimens from 6 to 8 feet high. Its foliage is of heavy texture, making it a useful plant for the dry atmosphere of a living-room. Two handsomely variegated forms of the above are D. Lindenii and D. Massangeana, both very desirable varieties. C. terminalis.— This is the most popular species, and is grown in immense quantities. The foliage on well-matured plants is of an intense rich crimson marked with lighter shadings. C. australis (commonly called C. indivisa).— Used principally as an outdoor decorative plant in summer, being extensively used for furnishing vases, window-boxes, and the like. It succeeds best when planted out in the open border during summer, potted in the fall and stored during winter in a cool greenhouse. It is propagated almost exclusively from seed, which germinates freely if sown during the early spring months in sandy soil, in a temperature of 60° to 65°, growing them on during the first season in small pots. These, if planted in the open border the second season, fine plants for 6- or 7-inch pots. There are a number of varieties of C. australis, among them several handsomely variegated bronze-colored forms, which, however, are but little distributed yet. Among the principal varieties and species besides the above which are grown in a commercial way are: Baptistii, Shepherdii, stricta grandis, Youngii, Goldieana, Lord Wolseley, De- Smetiana, Sanderiana, Godseffiana, and Mandaeana. (J. D. Eisele.) CH
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Pests and diseases
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About 15 specieswp.
- Cordyline australis (Cabbage Tree)
- Cordyline banksii
- Cordyline baueri
- Cordyline fruticosa (Ti Plant; syn. C. terminalis)
- Cordyline haageana
- Cordyline indivisa
- Cordyline pumilio
- Cordyline stricta
- C. angusta, Hort. (C. terminalis var.). Lvs. narrow, arching, dull dark green above, purplish beneath. A slender form.CH
- C. angustifolia, KunthCH
- C. stricta.CH
- C. aurantiaca, Hort.—(?).CH
- C. Balmoreana, Hort. Lvs. bronzy with white and pinkish stripes.CH
- C. Banksii, Hook. Lvs. very long, linear-lanceolate, 3-5 ft. long, 2-3 in. wide, petioled, green, glaucous beneath; veins conspicuous. G.C. III. 18:613.CH
- C. Berheleyi. Hort.= (?).CH
- C. Cassanoae, Hort. =-(?).CH
- C. Chelsonii. Hort. (form of C. terminalis). Lvs. large, glossy dark green, almost black, becoming suffused and edged with crimson. I.H. 19, p. 90.CH
- C. compacta, Hort. (C. terminalis form). Lvs. recurved, broad, dull green, with bronze and rose stripes in age.CH
- C. Dennisonii, Hort. (C. terminalis form). Dwarf: Lvs. broad, bronzy purple.CH
- C. Elizabethiae. Hort,= (?).CH
- C. excela, Hort. (C. terminalis form). Lvs. broad, arching, bronzy, margined with crimson.CH
- C. frederia= (?).CH
- C. frutescens=(?).CH
- C.galoriosa Hort. (C. terminalis form). Lvs. very large and broad, green, with a peculiar bronze-orange hue.CH
- C. helychioides. F. Muell.=C. terminalis.CH
- C. heliconiaefolia. Otto & Diet.=C. terminalis.CH
- C.Hendersonii, Hort. ==(?). CH
- C. magnifica, Hort. (C. terminalis form). Lvs. large and broad, bronzy pink, becoming darker.CH
- C. Manners Suttoniae, F. Muell.=C. terminalis.CH
- C. Muell, Hort. Lvs. green, margined with red; young Lvs. wholly red.CH
- C. porphyrophylla, Hort. (C. terminalis form). Lvs. deep bronzy purple, glaucous beneath.CH
- C. Rex, Hort. (C. terminalis form). Lvs. medium width, bronzy green, flushed purple and streaked with carmine.CH
- C. rosacea, Hort. (C. terminalis form). Lvs. recurved, broad, dark bronzy green margined with pink.CH
- C. Rumphii=D. Hookeriana. CH
- C. Salmonea=(?).CH
- C. sepidaia,kunth CH
- C. terminalis.CH
- C. Splendens,Hort=C. terminalis form). Lvs. dense, short, ovate-acute, bronzy green, shaded with rose-carmine.CH
- C. zeelanaica, Hort.=C. rubra. K. M. Wiegand.CH
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963