|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Cotoneaster (cotoneum, quince, and aster, similar: the leaves of some species resemble those of the quince). Rosaceae, subfamily Pomeae. Shrubs, rarely small trees, chiefly grown for their ornamental red or black fruits and some species also for their foliage which turns brilliant colors in autumn.
Leaves alternate, deciduous or persistent, short- petioled, entire, stipulate: fls. solitary or in cymes, terminal, on short lateral branchlets, white or pinkish; petals 5; stamens about 20: fr. a black or red pomaceous drupe, with 2-5 stones.—About 40 species, in the temperate regions of Eu. and Asia, also in N. Afr., but none in Japan.
Cotoneastere are ornamental shrubs, many of them with decorative fruits remaining usually through the whole winter, while only a few, like the hardy C. hupehensis and C. multiflora and the tender C. frigida, and also C. racemiflora and C. salicifolia, are conspicuous with abundant white flowers. Of the species with decorative red fruits, C. tomentosa, C. racemiflora and C. integerrima are quite hardy, and C. Simonsii, C. acuminata, C. rotundifolia, C. microphylla and others are hardy at least as far north as New York, while C. frigida and its allies are the most tender. The foliage of some of the species assumes brilliant colors m autumn; dark crimson in C. Simonsii, C. horizontalis, C. divaricata and C. Dielsiana; scarlet and orange in C. foveolata, bright yellow in C. Zabelii. The half-evergreen C. horizontalis and C. adpressa, and the evergreen C. Dammeri and C. microphylla, with its allied species, are well adapted for rockeries on account of their low, spreading or prostrate habit. Cotoneastere thrive in any good, well-drained garden soil, but dislike very moist and shady positions. Propagation is effected by seeds, sown in fall or stratified; the evergreen species grow readily from cuttings of half-ripened wood in August under glass; increased also by layers, put down in fall, or by grafting on C. vulgaris, hawthorn, mountain ash or quince. CH
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Pests and diseases
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- C. affinii. Lindl. Allied to C. frigida. Lvs. broad-elliptic: fr. dark brown, globose. Himalayas.CH
- C. ambigua, Rehd. & Wilson. Related to C. acutifolia. Shrub, to 6 ft.: lvs. elliptic-ovate to rhombic-ovate, villous beneath: fls. 5-10: calyx slightly pubescent or nearly glabrous: fr. ovoid, black. W. China.CH
- C. amaena, Wilson. Related to C. Franchetii. Dense shrub, to 5 ft.: lvs. ovata or elliptic, usually ½ in. long: corymbs 6-10-fld.; sepals acuminate: fr. globose, orange-red. Yunnan.CH
- C. angustifolia. Franch.= Pyracantha angustifolia.CH
- C. apiculata. Rehd. & Wilson. Related to C. Simonsii. Shrub, to 6 ft.: lvs. orbicular to roundish ovate, apiculate. bright green and lustrous, nearly glabrous, ¼-½ in. long: fr. nearly sessile, globose, bright red. W. China.CH
- C. arborescens, Zabel = C. Lindleyi. CH
- C. bacillaris, Wall. Related to C. frigida. Lvs. smaller, usually glabrous beneath at length: fr. dark brown. Himalayas.CH
- C. buxifolia. Wall. Related to C. rotundifolia. Lvs. elliptic, slightly pubescent above at first, grayish tomentose beneath: fls. 2-4. Min. across: fr. red. India. Wight, Icon. 3:992. Tender.CH
- C. disticha, Lange. Related to C. Simonsii. Half-evergreen, upright shrub, to 4 ft.: lvs. suborbicular to broadly obovate, apiculate, sparingly pubescent above, nearly glabrous beneath, ½in. or less long: fls. 1-2; calyx glabrous or nearly so: fr. scarlet. Himalayas.CH
- C. Harroviana, Wilson. Related to C. salicifolia. Shrub, to 6 ft.: lvs. elliptic-oblong, sometimes oval, 1-2 in. long, densely villous beneath: corymbs 1½ in. across. S. W. China.CH
- C. Henryana, Rehd. & Wilson (C. rugosa var. Henryana, Schneid.). Related to C. salicifolia. Shrub, to 12 ft.: lvs. thinner, elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 2-3 ½ in. long, and about 1 in. broad, pubescent and only slightly pubescent above, densely grayish pubescent beneath: corymbs many-fld., about 2 in. across; calyx pubescent: fr. red, ovoid, ¼ in. across, with 2-3 stones. Cent. China. O. C. III. 46:339 (not good).CH
- C. ignaea. Wolf. Related to C. melanocarpa. Shrub, to 5 ft.: lvs. ovate or oval, greenish white beneath, pubescent, 1-2 in. long: fls. 8-13, pinkish; calyx pubescent at the base: fr. dark reddish brown, nearly black. E.Turkestan. Yearb. For. Inst., Petersburg, 15:240.CH
- C. Landleyi, Steud. (C. arborescens, Zabel). Similar to C. racemiflora but fr. black. Himalayas.CH
- C. moupinensis, Franch. Related to C. foveolata. Shrub, to 15 ft.: lvs. elliptic to ovate-oblong, thicker, rugose above, pubescent beneath, at least on the veins, 2-5 in. long: corymbs many-fld.: fls. white or pinkish; calyx sparingly pubescent: fr. black, with 4-5 stones. W. China.CH
- C. nitens, Rehd. & Wilson. Related to C. divaricata. Lvs. broadly oval or roundish ovate, glabrous and lustrous above, ⅓-½ in. long: fr. ovoid, purplish black, stalked, pendulous. W. China.CH
- C. obscura, Rehd. & Wilson. Related to C. acuminata. Shrub, to 10 ft.: lvs. elliptic-ovate, finally glabrous above, yellowish gray-tomentose beneath. 1-2 in. long: fr. dull brownish red, ovoid, ⅓ in- long, usually with 3 atones. W. China.CH
- C. Pyracantha, Spach = Pyracantha coccinea.CH
- C. rosea, Edgew. Related to C. integerrima. Shrub, with slender upright branches: lvs. elliptic to ovate-oblong, nearly glabrous, grayish green beneath, 1-1⅓ in. long: fls. 4-9, pinkish with slightly spreading petals: fr. subglobose, dull red. Himalayas.CH
- C. Suvestrii, Pampanini. Allied to C. integerrima. Lvs. elliptic-ovate, densely hairy and cream-colored beneath. 1-2 in. long: calyx pubescent outside: fr. orange-colored. Cent. China.CH
- C. uniflora, Bunge. Allied to P. vulgaris. Lvs. oval to oval-oblong, glabrous when older: fls. solitary: fr. red. Altai Mts. Alfred Rehder.
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- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963
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