|Crataegus subsp. var.||Hawthorn|
Crataegus, (pronounced /krəˈtiːɡəs/), commonly called hawthorn or thornapple, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the rose family, Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. The White hawthorn (C. punctata) is the state flower of Missouri. The name hawthorn was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the Common Hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unmodified name is often so used in Britain and Ireland. However the name is now also applied to the entire genus, and also to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis.
They are shrubs or small trees, mostly growing to 5–15 m tall, with small pome fruit and (usually) thorny branches. The most common type of bark is smooth grey in young individuals, developing shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow ridges in older trees. The thorns are small sharp-tipped branches that arise either from other branches or from the trunk, and are typically 1–3 cm long (recorded as up to 11.5 cm in one casepage 97). The leaves grow spirally arranged on long shoots, and in clusters on spur shoots on the branches or twigs. The leaves of most species have lobed or serrate margins and are somewhat variable in shape. The fruit, sometimes known as a "haw", is berry-like, but structurally a pome containing from 1 to 5 pyrenes that resemble the "stones" of plums, peaches, etc. which are drupaceous fruit in the same subfamily.
Hawthorns provide food and shelter for many species of birds and mammals, and the flowers are important for many nectar-feeding insects. Hawthorns are also used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species; see List of Lepidoptera that feed on hawthorns. Haws are important for wildlife in winter, particularly thrushes and waxwings; these birds eat the haws and disperse the seeds in their droppings.
Many species and hybrids are used as ornamental and street trees. The Common Hawthorn is extensively used in Europe as a hedge plant. Several cultivars of the Midland Hawthorn C. laevigata have been selected for their pink or red flowers. Hawthorns are among the trees most recommended for water conservation landscapes.
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Crataegus (ancient Greek name, derived from kratos, strength, on account of the hardiness of the wood). Rosaceae, subfam. Pomeae. Crategus. Hawthorn. Woody plants grown for their handsome foliage, attractive flowers and decorative fruit which, in a few species, is edible, and also for their picturesque habit: very valuable for ornament.
Shrubs or small trees, usually spiny: Lvs. alternate, deciduous, stipulate, serrate, often lobed or pinnatifid: fls. white, in some varieties red, in corymbs, rarely solitary; petals and calyx-lobes 5; stamens 5-25, usually 10 or 20; styles 1-5: fr. a drupe-like pome, with 1-5 1-seeded bony stones.—A large genus, widely distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, most abundant in N. Amer., where between 800 and 900 species have been described, while from the Old World only about 60 species are known. There exists no recent monograph of the genus; a systematic enumeration of the arborescent American species will be found in Sargent, "Manual of the Trees of North America," pp. 363-504; of the species of the southern states in Small, "Flora of the Southeastern United States," pp. 532-569; and of the species of the northeastern states in Gray's Manual, ed. 7, p. 460- 79, and in Britton and Brown, 111. Flor. (ed. 2) 2:294-321; for the species cult, in European gardens, see Lange, "Revisio Specierum Generis Crataegi" (1897), quoted below as Lange.
The hawthorns are hardy ornamental shrubs and trees, mostly of dense and low growth, with handsome foliage, turning, in most species, to a brilliant coloring in the fall. Almost all have attractive white flowers, pink or crimson in some varieties of C. Oxpacantha and C. monogyna. Most of the species have very decorative fruit which in C. Phaenopyrum, C. nitida, C. viridis, C. fecunda, C. pruinosa, C. Carrierei, C. persistens, C. Oxyacantha, C. monogyna and others persist on the trees until late into the winter, while some species, as C. Arnoldiana, ripen their large fruits, which soon drop, in August; also C. dahurica, C. sanguinea and the black- fruited C. nigra ripen about the same time, and C. submollis only a little later, but the earliest of all is the southern C. aestivalis, which ripens its fruits in May. This and the blue-fruited C. brachyacantha are among the most decorative hawthorns for the southern states. The fruit of C. aestivalis, and that of C. mexicana is made into preserves and jellies; also the fruits of the Molles group are suited for jelly-making, and in South Carolina an excellent jelly similar in quality and taste to Guava jelly is made from the fruits of some species of the Flavae group. In Europe, C, monogyna and C. Oxyacantha are counted among the best hedge plants; also many American species like C. Phaenopyrum, C. Crus-galli and possibly] C. macracantha, C. intricate, C. pastorum, C. rotundifolia, may be used for hedges, but they are stronger growers and cannot be pruned so closely as the European species. The hawthorns grow well in exposed positions and as a rule do not like much shade; they are not particular as to the soil, but grow best in limestone soil, also in a rich, loamy, somewhat moist one, and even in strong clay. Propagated by seeds, sown in fall or stratified; before stratifying, most of the pulp may be removed by laying the fruits in shallow piles and allowing them to decay. Then they are mixed with sand or sifted soil and buried in the ground or kept in boxes in a cool cellar. The young plants should not be allowed to remain over one year in the seed-beds, as they form long tap-roots and are then difficult to transplant. Varieties and rarer kinds are easily budded or grafted on seedling stock of C. Oxyacantha, or other common strong-growing species. The spines of crategus are modified branches (see Fig. 1096). The fruits are pomes (Fig. 1097), with structure similar to that of the apple. Alfred Rehder.
The American hawthorns are highly ornamental subjects for the planting of parks and private estates. The showy flowers in spring and early summer, the conspicuous red, crimson, anal scarlet fruits of nearly all of them, which extend amongst the different species from August to early winter and midwinter,—and some of the species markedly retain their fruits without shrinkage of pulp or loss of color until early winter,— the absolute hardihood, and the bold rugged branching habits characteristic to most of them, make them very interesting objects when their leafless forms are outlined in a winter landscape. The landscape gardener cannot make any mistake in planting them in liberal quantities in private estates or public parks.
They are easily transplanted. They are much benefited by liberal pruning when transplanted from nursery rows or from the woodland. The side branches should be pruned in severely, and as the centers of good-sized plants are likely to be full of intricate and congested branches, these should be carefully thinned. In a young state they should be grown to one stem whether they are arborescent or shrubby species. Under this treatment they make beautiful garden plants.
The American hawthorns are almost invariably found growing in heavy limestone clay. They may occasionally overlap into sandy soil. In planting them in sandy soil, it should be liberally enriched with well rotted manure, and they should be kept well mulched.
The seeds of all of the species of American hawthorns germinate slowly. None of the species germinates before the second year after sowing, and many of the seeds in the same "flat" will not germinate before the third year. In many instances, part of the seeds germinate the second year, and the remainder the third. The seeds of Crataegus geneseensis have been known to be dormant for three years, and all come up thickly at the same time. In some of the groups the seeds of the species germinate more freely than in others. The species in the Molles, Flabellatae and Tomentosse groups germinate abundantly. The germination of the species in the Pruinosae group have a much lower percentage than in the former. The species in the Intricatae group germinate badly.
The fruit can be sown broadcast in beds without any separation of the seeds, and heavily mulched until the spring of the second year, when the mulching should be removed. This method, however, is not considered good, and has been given up. The best way is to soak the fruits in water, and by maceration the seeds or nutlets are separated from the pulp, and the seeds will sink to the bottom of the tub or vessel. The seeds are Chen dried in the sun as they can then be handled easily. They are sown in "flats" of convenient size to handle, and piled up in the corner of the shade house and fitted tightly above each other to prevent mice getting at them. During this period of rest they must not be allowed to become dry. In the spring of the second year they are spread out to allow the seeds to germinate. Numbered zinc tags are nailed on the flats" and the corresponding numbers with the names of the species are recorded.
The American hawthorns can be grafted readily on potted seedling stocks in the greenhouse in winter, any of the species in the Crus-galli group being good to use. They are grafted at the crown. This, however, is an unnecessary operation. All of the species of American hawthorns (and there are over 900 of them) come absolutely true from seed, and whilst they germinate slowly, they start to grow rapidly into plants of good stocky size from about two years after they germinate. Some of the species of American hawthorns have highly colored foliage in the fall. The species in the Pruinosue, Medioximae and Intricate groups have perhaps the most highly colored foliage. Notable examples are Crataegus opulens, C. diffusa, C. maineana, C. dissona, C. cognata, C. conspecta, C. promissa, C. exornata, C. perjucunda, C. foetida, and C. verecunda.
The different species vary greatly in the time of ripening their fruits and in the period of duration. In many instances the fruit drops soon after ripening and in others hangs on for a long period. A selection of twenty-six species that would give a good fruit display from August until early or mid-winter, would be as follows: Crataegus matura, C. praecox, C. Arnoldiana, C. Dayana, C. Robesoniana, C. pedicellata, C. gloriosa, C. Ellwangeriana, C. lauta, C. submollis, C. champlainensis, C. arkansana, C. Dunbari, C. ferentaria, C. opulens, C. compta, C. gemmosa, C. livoniana, C. geneseensis, C. persimilis, C. maineana, C. Barryana, C. coccinioides, C. leiophylla, C. durobrivensis, and C. cordata. (See pp. 887-889 for some of these.) CH
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Pests and diseases
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- C. altaica, Lange = C. Wattiana.CH
- C. ambigua, C. A. Mey. Related to C. monogyna. Lvs. deeply 4-7-lobed, sparingly hairy on both sides, 1-2 in. long: corymbs slightly hairy. fr. ovoid, usually with 2 stones. S. Russia.CH
- C. Baxteri, Sarg.=C. foetida.CH
- C. beata, Sarg. Allied to C. pruinosa. Shrub, to 15 ft.: lvs. oblong-ovate, villous above while young: anthers dark maroon-color: fr. crimson, pruinose, ripens end of Sept. N. Y.CH
- C. Beckwithae, Sarg. Allied to C. pastorum. Shrub or tree, to 18 ft.: lvs. ovate, usually truncate at the base, at maturity thin: calyx-lobes glandular-serrate: fr. subglobose, crimson, with 5 stones. N. Y.CH
- C. bellula. Sarg. Related to C. pruinosa. Shrub, to 12 ft.; glabrous: Lvs. ovate, bluish green and lustrous above, 2-3 in. long: stamens 8-10: fr. dull crimson, bloomy, ¾ in. across, with usually 4 stones. Mich. 8.T.8. 1:56.CH
- C. berberifolia, Torr. A Gray. Related to C. Crus-galli. Lvs. obovate or obovate-oblong, obtuse, pubescent below, lustrous and nearly glabrous above, 1⅓-2 in. long: corymbs pubescent: anthers yellow: fr. orange with red cheek. La. S.S. 179.CH
- C. Celsiana. Bosc. Shrub: lvs. pinnately lobed, slightly pubescent beneath: corymbs many-fld.: fr. ovoid, red. Origin unknown, probably hybrid of C. pentagyna.CH
- C. champlainensis, Sarg. Allied to C. mollis. Tree, to 20 ft., spiny: Lvs. ovate, usually truncate at the base, lobed, glabrous above, pubescent on the veins below, 2-2½ in. long: corymbs villous, usually 4-5-fld.; stamens 10: fr. obovoid or ovoid, scarlet, ⅓ in. long, in Sept. Que. and Ont. to Vt. and N. Y. S.S. 13:669.CH
- C. chloroearca, Maxim. Allied to C. sanguinea. Lvs. pinnately lobed. truncate at the base, with short lobes, glabrous at length: corymbs many-fld., nearly glabrous: fr. black, with green flesh. Japan.CH
- C. cognata. Sarg. Closely related to C. pruinosa. Shrub, to 10 ft., spiny: Lvs. ovate, acute or acuminate, slightly lobed, dull bluish green, glabrous: corymbs 5-7-fld.; anthers yellow: fr. ovoid or pyriform, pruinose, dull crimson at maturity, over ⅓ in. long, in Oct. Mass.CH
- C. compta, Sarg. (C. silvicola var. compta, Eggleston). Allied to C. pruinosa. Shrub, spiny, glabrous: Lvs. oblong-ovate, usually rounded at the base, slightly lobed, glabrous: corymbs many-fld.; stamens 7-10; anthers dark row: fr. obovoid, light cherry-red, ½ in. long, in Oct. W. N. Y. CH
- C. conspicta, Sarg. Allied to C. pruinosa. Tree, to 20 ft., spiny: Lvs. broadly ovate, rounded or subcordate at the base, lobed, yellow-green, pubescent on the midrib below: corymbs 5-6-fld., slightly hairy, compact; anthem white: fr. subglobose, crimson, over ½ in. across, in Oct. Ont.CH
- C. crenulata, Roxbg.= Pyracantha crenulata, CH
- C. cuneata, Sieb. & Zucc. Belongs to group Cuneata-. Shrub: young branchlets villous: Lvs. ahort-petioled, cuneate-obovate or cuneate-ohlong, crenate-serrate, glabrous and lustrous above, sparingly hairy below: corymbs villous, 3-7-fld.; stamens 20; anthers red: fr. red, with 5 stones, plain inside. China and Japan. L. I. 5.CH
- C. cupulifera. Sarg. Allied to C. rotundifolia. Shrub, to 20 ft.: Lvs. obovate or rhombic, slightly lobed, lustrous and scabrate above: corymbs slightly villous; fls. cup-shaped; stamens 10, anthers pink: fr. scarlet, with 3-4 stones. N. Y.CH
- C. Dayana, Sarg. Allied to C. pedicellata. Tree, to 15 ft., spiny: Lvs. broadly ovate, acuminate, rounded or cuneate at the base, dark yellow-green, slightly hairy on the veins below while young: corymbs 10-14-fld.; fls. ¾in. across; stamens 20: fr. obovoid, crimson, in Sept., soon falling. W. N. Y.CH
- C. diffusa, Sarg. Allied to C. pruinosa. Intricately branched spiny shrub, to 15 ft., glabrous: Lvs. ovate, acuminate, rounded or cuneate at the base, dark bluish green and slightly scabrate above: corymbs 6-12-fld.; stamens 10: fr. subglobose, scarlet, less than ½ in. across , in Oct .W.N.Y.CH
- C. Dippeliana, Lange (C. tanacetiflora var. Loeana, Hort. C. tanacetifolia x C. punctata?). Small tree, spiny: Lvs. rhombic-elliptic, lobed, sparingly pubescent above, densely beneath: corymbs densely villous; stamens 20: fr. subglobose, reddish yellow or dull red. Origin unknown. Gn. 33, p. 468.CH
- C. dissona, Sarg. (C. pruinosa var. dissona, Eggleston). Allied to C. pruinosa. Slender spiny shrub, to 10 ft., glabrous: Lvs. ovate to rhombic, cuneate at the base, dark bluish green: corymbs 5-7-fld.; stamens 10; anthers purple: fr. subglobose. crimson, in Oct. Mass.CH
- C. dsungarica, Zabel. Allied to C. sanguinea. Tree: Lvs. deeply lobed, sparingly pubescent or nearly glabrous: corymbs slightly pubescent: fr. black; stones without or with slight furrows. Of unknown origin. CH
- C. Dunbari, Sarg. Shrub, to 12 ft., spiny: Lvs. ovate to suborbicular, usually rounded at the base, slightly lobed, glabrous or slightly rough above: corymbs 10-14-fld.: fr. subglobose, crimson, ½in. across, in Oct. W.N.Y. Belongs to group Anomalae,allied to Tenuifoliae.CH
- C. aurobrizensis, Sarg. Allied to C. coccinioides. Shrub, to 20 ft., spiny: Lvs. ovate, with. 3-4 pairs of short lobes, glabrous: corymbs glabrous; stamens 20: fr. bright red, in Oct. N. Y. S.T.S. 1:2. CH
- C. elliptica, Ait. (C. glandulosa, Moench. C. flava var. pubescens, Gray). Allied to C. flava. Lvs. broader, of firmer texture, more pubescent and glandular: fr. subglobose, red or yellow. Southern states. B.R. 22: 1890 (as C. spathulata). CH
- C. elliptico. Beadle, is C. senta, Beadle, a species allied to C. flava. S.S. 13:697. CH
- C. elliptica, Mohr, is C. signata, Beadle, a species allied to C. Crus-galli. S.S. 13:644. CH
- C. exornata, Sarg. Allied to C. pruinosa. Shrub, to 10 ft., spiny: Lvs. ovate, usually rounded at the base, slightly lobed, dark yellow-green and rough above: corymbs 5-6-fld.; stamens 7-10; anthers pink: fr. subglobose, scarlet, less than ½ in. across, in Sept. Ont. CH
- C. Fazonii, Sarg. Allied to C. rotundifolia. Shrub, to 10 ft., spiny: lvs. broadly ovate, with 4-5 pairs of short lobes, nearly glabrous at maturity: corymbs villous; stamens 5-10: fr. dark crimson, in Sept. N. H. S.T.S. 1:60.CH
- C. ferentaria, Sarg. Allied to C. macracantha. Intricately branched shrub, to 12 ft.. with stout spines: Lvs. rhombic or obovate, puberulous below on the veins: corymbs slightly villous; stamens 7-10; anthers white: fr. subglobose or ovoid, ⅓ in. long, scarlet, with usually 2 stones, ripening in Oct. W.N.Y.CH
- C. flabellata, Spach (C. Grayana, Eggleston). Allied to C. pedicellata. Shrub, to 20 ft.: Lvs. ovate, with short acute lobes, at first sparingly hairy above and villous at the veins beneath: corymbs slightly villous; calyx-lobes sparingly glandular- serrate; stamens 20: fr. ovoid, crimson, with 3-5 stones, in Sept. Que.CH
- C. florentina, Zuccagni = Pyrus crataegifolia.CH
- C.faetida, Ashe (C. Baxteri, Sarg.). Allied to C. intricate. Intricately branched, spiny shrub, to 12 ft., glabrous: Lvs. ovate or oval: corymbs usually 5-6-fld.; calyx-lobes serrate: fr. subglobose. orange-red or red- brown, about ½ in. thick, with 3-4 stones, in Oct. Mass, to Ont. and Va.CH
- C. Fontanesiana, Steud. Allied to C. Crus-galli. Lvs. elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, almost glabrous, shining above: corymbs many-fld., pubescent: fr. red. Probably hybrid of C. Crus-galli.CH
- C. Forbease, Sarg. Allied to C. pastorum. Shrub, to 15 ft.: Lvs. ovate to oval, cuneate or rounded at the base, slightly lobed: stamens 20; anthers dark rose-color: fr. globose or ovoid, scarlet, with thin and juicy flesh. Mass.vC. formosa, Sarg. Allied to C. pruinosa. Shrub, to 15 ft.: Lvs. oblong-ovate, rounded or cuneate at the base, slightly lobed, slightly hairy above while young: corymbs many-fld.: fr. ovoid or obovoid, scarlet, pruinose, with 4-5 stones. N. Y.CH
- C. gemmosa, Sarg. Allied to C. succulenta. Tree, to 30 ft., spiny: Lvs. broadly obovate to broadly elliptic, doubly serrate and often slightly lobed, at maturity pubescent on the midrib beneath: corymbs villous: fr. scarlet, lustrous, in Oct. N. Y. to Mich, and Ont. S.S. 13:686.CH
- C. geneseensis. Sarg. Allied to C. Crus-galli. Small tree, to 12 ft., spiny, glabrous: Lvs. obovate- oblong, pointed at the rounded or acute apex, with prominent veins: corymbs many-fld., lax; anthers pink: fr. ovoid, scarlet, ½ in. long, with 1-3 nutlets, in Oct. W. N. Y. G.C. III. 53:115.CH
- C. glandulosa, Moench=C. elliptica.CH
- C. gloriosa, Sarg. Allied to C. pedicellata. Tree, to 25 ft., with few spines: Lvs. ovate, cuneate or rounded at the base, rough above, slightly pubescent on the veins below, sometimes finally glabrous: corymbs 10-15-fld.; stamens 7- 10: fr. ovoid, often unsymmetrical, deep crimson, in Sept. W. N. Y. CH
- C. grandiflora, Koch (C. lobata, Bosc. Cratae-mespilus grandiflora, Camus). Small tree: Lvs. elliptic, serrate, often slightly lobed toward the apex, pubescent: fls. 1-3, large: fr. brown, globose, large. Supposed to be a hybrid between Mespilus germanica and a Crataegus. G.F. 10:35. R.H. 1869, p. 80.CH
- C. Grayana, Eggleston=C. flabellata.CH
- C. Harbisonii. Beadle. Belongs to group Bracteatae allied to Intricate. Tree, to 25 ft.: Lvs. oval or broadly obovate, coarsely serrate; petioles glandular: corymbs many-fld., with conspicuous glandular bracts: fr. red or bright red, in Oct. S.S. 13:691.CH
- C. heterophylla, Fluegge. Allied to C. monogyna. Lvs. larger, usually trifid: fr. larger, bright red: corymbs many-fld. B.R. 14:1161:22:1847.CH
- C. hiemalis, Lange. Possibly C. Crus-galli x C. pentagyna. Lvs. elliptic to ovate, densely serrate or slightly lobed, lustrous above, pubescent on the veins beneath: corymbs villous; stamens 15, with purple anthers: fr. purplish black. Origin unknown.CH
- C. Holmesiana, Sarg. Allied to C. pedicellata. Tree, to 30 ft.: Lvs. oval or ovate, slightly lobed, at maturity yellowish green, glabrous: fls. ½-¾ in. across; stamens usually 5, anthers purple: fr. ovoid, crimson, with usually 3 stones. Montreal to Pa., W. N. Y. and Ont. S.S. 13:676.CH
- C. integriloba, Sarg. Allied to C. tomentosa. Tree, to 10 ft., spiny: Lvs. broadly obovate or oval, broadly cuneate at the base, slightly lobed. glabrous: corymbs villous; calyx-lobes entire: fr. subglobose, ⅓-½in- across, scarlet, lustrous. Que. G.C. III. 47:60.CH
- C. irrosa, Sarg. Allied to C. pedicellata. Shrub, to 12 ft.: Lvs. ovate, cuneate or rounded at the base, slightly lobed, lustrous and glabrous above: stamens 20, anthers yellow: fr. ovoid, dark red, lustrous. Que.CH
- C. Korolkowii, Henry =C. Wattiana. See also No. 50.CH
- C. lauta, Sarg. Allied to C. Ellwangeriana. Arborescent shrub, spiny: Lvs. ovate, acuminate, scabrate above, sparingly pubescent on the veins below: corymbs 8-12-fld., compact: fr. ovoid, bright orange-red. ¾ in. long, with 5 nutlets, in Sept. Origin unknown, much planted in Boston parks.CH
- C. leiophylla, Sarg. Allied to C. pruinosa. Slender intricate, spiny shrub, to 15 ft., glabrous: Lvs. broadly ovate, usually rounded or truncate at the base, dark dull blue-green above: corymbs 5-7- fld., compact; anthers yellow: fr. obovoid. bright red. ,½ in. long, with usually 4 stones, in Nov. W. N. Y.CH
- C. livoniana, Sarg. Allied to C. Crus-galli. Tree, to 20 ft., spiny, glabrous: Lvs. oblong-obovate, acute or rounded at the apex, finely and often doubly serrate: corymbs lax, 10-18-fld.; calyx-lobes glandular-serrate: fr. subglobose to ovoid, dark crimson, ½ in- long, with 2-4 stones, in Oct. N. Y. S.T.S. 2:129.CH
- C. lobata, Bosc=C. grandiflora.CH
- C. locorum. Sarg. Allied to C. pastorum. Tree to 25 ft., spiny: Lvs. broadly ovate to obovate, slightly lobed, glabrous: corymbs villous, few-fld.; stamens 20, with purple anthers: fr. ovoid, crimson, in Sept. Ill. S.S. 13:679.CH
- C. maineana, Sarg. (C. leiophylla var. maineana, Eggleston). Allied to C. pruinosa. Tree-like shrub, to 15 ft., spiny, glabrous: lvs. ovate to deltoid, acuminate, hairy while young: corymbs many-fld.; stamens 10; anthers dark purple : fr. globose, scarlet, scarcely pruinose, about ½ in. thick , in. Oct. W.N.Y.CH
- C. matura. Sarg. Allied to C. pastorum. Shrub, to 10 ft., with few spines, glabrous: Lvs. oval to ovate-oblong, usually cuneate at the base, dark green above, yellow-green below: corymbs many-fld.; stamens 5-10; anthers red: fr. ovoid, dark purplish crimson, ¾ in. long, in Aug. Vt., Mass., N. Y.CH
- C. Maximowicxii. Schneid. (C. sanguinea var. villosa, Maxim.). -Allied to C. sanguinea. Small tree, to 20 ft: Lvs. ovate, slightly lobed. pilose below: corymbs densely pilose: fr. pilose when young, finally glabrous. Amurland, Manchuria.CH
- C. microcarpa, Lindl.=C. spathulata.CH
- C. opulens, Sarg. Allied to C. pruinosa. Shrub, to 15 ft., spiny, glabrous: Lvs. oblong- ovate to oval, acuminate, hairy above while young: corymbs 5-8 fld., compact: fr. subglobose. obscurely angled, crimson, slightly pruinose, ½ in. long, in Oct. W. N. Y.CH
- C. Palmeri, Sarg. Allied to C. Crus-galli. Tree, to 25 ft.: Lvs. broadly ovate to oblong, rounded or acute at the apex, coarsely serrate, glabrous: corymbs glabrous; stamens 10, with yellow anthers: fr. dull green, tinged with red, in Oct. S.M. 381.CH
- C. peregrina, Sarg. Allied to C. mollis. Tree: Lvs. ovate, broadly cuneate, with 5-6 pairs of narrow lobes, glabrous above, villous beneath: corymbs many-6d., villous: fr. ovate-globose, dark dull purple, pubescent at the base and apex. ½ in. across. Origin unknown, probably S. W. Asia. S.T.S. 2:191.CH
- C. perjucunda, Sarg. Allied to C. pruinosa. Spiny shrub, glabrous: Lvs. ovate, acuminate, dark green above: corymbs 8-10-fld.; anthers white: fr. ovoid, orange-red, finally crimson, slender-stalked, less than ½ in. long, in Oct. Ont., N. Y.CH
- C. perslmilis, Sarg. Allied to C. Crus-galli. Shrub, to 8 ft.: lvs. oblong-obovate to oval, usually acute, veins prominent, slightly hairy while young: corymbs slightly villous; stamens 10-20: fr. subglobose or ovoid, crimson, lustrous, with 1-2 stones. N. Y.CH
- C. praecox, Sarg. (C. praecoqua, Sarg.). Allied to C. rotundifolia. Shrub, to 10 ft., spiny: Lvs. rhomboidal to oval, slightly hairy while young, glabrous at maturity and scabrous above: corymbs slightly villous, many-fld.; stamens 10: fr. subglobose, dark crimson, ⅔-in. thick, in Aug. Vt., Que.CH
- C. promisea, Sarg. Allied to C. pruinosa. Shrub, to 12 ft., spiny, glabrous: Lvs. oblong-ovate, acuminate, deeply lobed: corymbs lax, many-fid.; stamens 5-7; anthers pink: fr. ovoid, crimson, not pruinose, less than ½ in- long, in Sept. W. N. Y.CH
- C. Pyracantha, Pers.= Pyracantha coccinea.CH
- C. rivuaris, Nutt. Allied to C. Douglasii. Shrub: Lvs. ovate-lanceolate, serrate, glabrous at length. Wyo. to Colo, and Utah. 8.3.4:176.CH
- C. Sargentii. Beadle. Allied to C. intricata. Tree, to 20 ft.: Lvs. elliptic to oblong-ovate, slightly lobed, glabrous at maturity: corymbs slightly villous or glabrous; stamens 20, with purple anthers: fr. yellow or orange-yellow, tinged with red, in Sept. Ga. to Tenn. and Ala.CH
- C. songarica, Regel= C. Wattiana.CH
- C. spalkulata, Michx. Shrub or tree, to 20 ft.: Lvs. cuneate, oblanceolate, crenately serrate or 3-lobed at the apex: corymbs many-fld.: fr. scarlet, globular, ¼ in. across. Southern states. S.S. 4:185. B.R.22:1846 (as C. microcarpa). The only species of the group Microcarpae allied to the Apiifoliae.CH
- C. triflora, Chapm. Shrub or small tree, to 20 ft.: lvs. ovate or elliptic, serrate, often slightly lobed, pubescent, 1-2 ½ in. long: corymbs 3-fld., hirsute; fls. 1 in. across; stamens 20; anthers yellow: fr. globose, red. Ga., Ala. Belongs to the group Triflorae, allied to Intricate.--Very distinct and handsome; has proved hardy at the Arnold Arboretum.CH
- C. verecunda, Sarg. Allied to C. intricata. Shrub, about 3 ft., spiny, glabrous: Lvs. oblong-obovate or oval, acute or acuminate, light bluish green: corymbs 6-l0-fld.; stamens 7; anthers white: fr. ovoid or obovoid, less than ½ -in. long, with 2-3 stones, in Sept. or Oct. W. N. Y.CH
- C. Wattiana, Hemsl. & Lace. (C. altaica, Lange. C. songarica, Regel). Allied to C. sanguinea. Lvs. smaller, truncate at the base, glabrous: corymbs glabrous: fr. yellow or reddish yellow, smaller. Cent. Asia. Var. incisa, Schneid. (C. Korolkowii, Henry. C. sanguinea var. incisa, Regel). Lvs. more1 deeply and acutely lobed. R.H. 1901:301.CH
- C. Wilsonii, Sarg. Allied to C. tomentosa. Shrub, to 20 ft.: Lvs. ovate or obovate, acute or obtuse, lustrous above, sparingly villous beneath: fr. ovoid, red, nearly ½in. long, with 1-3 stones. Cent. ChinaCH
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963
- w:Crataegus. Some of the material on this page may be from Wikipedia, under the Creative Commons license.
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