|Narcissus subsp. var.||Daffodil, Narcissus|
Narcissus is the botanic name for a genus of hardy, mostly spring-flowering, bulbs. There are several Narcissus species that bloom in the autumn. Daffodil is a common English name, sometimes used now for all narcissus. They are mostly native to the Mediterranean region, but a few species are found through Central Asia to China. The range of forms in cultivation has been heavily modified and extended, with new variations available in nurseries practically every year.
All Narcissus species have a central trumpet-shaped corona surrounded by a ring of petals. The traditional daffodil has a golden yellow color all over, but the corona may often feature a contrasting color such as that of a slice of lime. Breeders have developed some daffodils with a double or triple row of petals, making them resemble a small golden ball. Other cultivars have frilled petals, or an elongated or compressed central corona.
Daffodils are poisonous, and if eaten could result in death.
Pests and diseases
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- Narcissus bulbocodium
- Narcissus cyclamineus
- Narcissus minor
- Narcissus papyraceus
- Narcissus poeticus
- Narcissus pseudonarcissus
- Narcissus tazetta
- Narcissus triandrus
Paper whites refer to the species Narcissus papyraceus.
The horticultural divisions include:
- Trumpet daffodils
- Large-cupped daffodils
- Small-cupped daffodils
- Double daffodils
- Triandrus daffodils
- Cyclamineus daffodils
- Jonquilla daffodils
- Tazetta (Poetaz or Bunch-flowered) daffodils
- Poeticus (Poet's) daffodils
- Bulbocodium daffodils
- Split-corona daffodils
- Other daffodils which don't fit the above divisions
- Species and wild hybrids
- Miniature daffodils are found in all divisions.
Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Narcissus (name probably derived from the story of the youth Narcissus, in mythology). Amaryllidaceae. Narcissus. Daffodil. Well known and desirable mostly spring-blooming bulbs, hardy and also used for forcing.
Plants with tunicated bulbs, from which arise the foliage and the fl.-scapes: lvs. linear or even subulate, usually appearing with the bloom: fls. white, yellow or seldom green, erect or pendent, solitary or umbellate on the top of the scape or peduncle, the spathe 1-lvd. and membranous; perianth salverform, the tube varying in shape, the 6 segms. equal or nearly so and ascending, spreading or reflexed, the throat bearing a corona or crown which is long and tubular (trumpet daffodils), or cup-shaped, or reduced to a ring; stamens 6, attached in the perianth-tube, the filaments short or long; ovary 3-celled, the style filiform and the small stigma 3-lobed: caps, membranous, loculicidal, bearing globose or angled seeds.—The species of Narcissus grow natively in Cent. Eu. and the Medit. region and eastward through Asia to China and Japan. Many species-names are in the literature, most of them representing variants or hybrids, for the plants are extensively cult. and have received much attention from fanciers; probably 25 or 30 species represent the original stocks. The prominent species- types from the horticultural point of view are N. Pseudo-Narcissus (the common daffodil), N. Bulbocodium (hoop-petticoat daffodil), N. Tazetta (poly-polyanthus narcissus), N. Jonquilla (jonquil), N. poeticus (poet's narcissus).
It is customary to throw the cultivated narcissi into three main groups, founded on the length or size of the crown or cup in the perianth: I. The true daffodils or trumpets (Magnicoronati; Figs. 2437-2442), those with crowns equaling or surpassing the perianth-segments in length; here belong N. Pseudo-Narcissus, N. Bulbocodium. II. The star-narcissi or chalice-flowers (Mediocoronati; Figs. 2443-2446), with crowns about half the length of the segments, as N. triandrus, N. incomparabilis. III. The true narcissi (Parvicoronati; Figs. 2447-2450), in which the crown is very short or reduced to a rim, as N. poeticus, N. Jonquilla and N. Tazetta. With the introduction of hybrid races, this old and usual classification becomes confused. It is suggested, therefore, by S. Eugene Bourne, an English authority, in The Garden, "that the first step to an improved classification—a step which requires a very slight alteration in the present system—should be to form group I exclusively of true daffodils, and group III exclusively of true narcissi. All seedlings resulting from the union of two true daffodils should be placed in group I, all those from the union of two true narcissi in group III. All cross-bred forms containing both true daffodil and true narcissus blood should be put with the two species of intermediate character, Triandrus and Juncifolius, in group II, to be called, perhaps, intermediate narcissi. In subdividing this middle group, forms having special characteristics must be carefully distinguished from each other (for example, hybrids of Triandrus from hybrids of Poeticus, and so on), but subject to such distinctions, arbitrary crown-perianth measurements would be usefully employed." Discarding, for the garden forms, the older grouping into the three crown-lengths, the Royal Horticultural Society recently adopted eleven groups of Narcissi, as follows (subdivisions omitted except in I): I. Thumpet Daffodils. Trumpet or crown as long as or longer than the perianth-segments.
Yellow.—Perianth and trumpet yellow. White.—Perianth and trumpet white. Bicolor.—Perianth white, trumpet yellow.
II. Incomparabilis. Cup or crown not less than one-third but less than equal to the length of the perianth-segments. HI. Barrii.. Cup or crown less than one-third the length of the perianth-segments.
IV. Leedsii. Perianth white, and cup or crown white, cream or pale citron, sometimes tinged with pink or apricot; embracing different dimensions.
V. Triandrds Hybrids.
VI. Cyclamineus Hybrids.
VII. Jonquilla Hybrids.
VIII. Tazetta Axd Tazetta Hybrids.
Poetas.—Hybrids between Poeticus and Polyanthus sorts.
IX. Poeticus Varieties.
X. Double Varieties.
XI. Various. To include N. Bulbocodium, N. cyclamineus, N. triandrus, N. juncifolius, N.Jonquilla, N. Tazetta (sp.), N. viridiflorus, etc.
In the present account, it is desired to keep the type- species in view, and therefore a botanical classification is followed. In this systematic treatment, use has been made of Bourne's "Book of the Daffodil," although it is founded on Baker's "Handbook of the Amaryllideae:." A "Key to the Daffodils" by Wilhelm Miller and Leonard Barron in Kirby's "Daffodils, Narcissus and How to Grow Them," New York, 1907, arranges the species and the main garden races. In this systematic account, only the main types or well-recognized races are described; other forms will be found in the supplementary list at the end of the article.
Into the second or medium-crowned group may be placed a number of good and popular horticultural strains which are actually or presumably hybrids between long-crowns (or trumpets) and short-crowns. Very likely N. incomparabilis and N. odorus are themselves hybrid series. Forms of N. triandrus might very well be classed with the long-crowns. The other garden series in this group are undoubtedly of hybrid origin, as: N. Barrii (Fig. 2446) had yielded about fifty named forms when Baker wrote in 1888. It is one-flowered: perianth-segments spreading, somewhat imbricated, to 1¼ inches long, sulfur-yellow, twice or more the length of the crown, the latter somewhat expanded, yellow and more or less margined with darker yellow or red. N. Leedsii is one-flowered: flowers slightly drooping, with spreading milk-white segments twice or more the length of cup-shaped very pale yellow crown, which usually changes to white. Other group-series, as N. Humei, N. tridymus, N. Backhousei, will be found in the supplementary list (page 2113).
The narcissi are among the most popular of all spring-flowering plants, being mostly hardy, free-blooming and showy, and of interesting forms and colors There are a few autumn-bloomers in the genus, but these are little known horticulturally. They are N. viridiflorus, N. serotinus and N. elegans. The hybrid narcissi have now introduced many forms, and races of varieties, and the nomenclature is mixed; but these forms and tribes add greatly to the resources of the cultivator. In this country, there is less amateur interest in the group than in European countries, although some of the kinds are forced in great quantities and many of them are widely popular among planters.
Narcissus has an interesting literature. Some of the older standard works in English are Burbidge's "The Narcissus," with many colored plates, and Peter Barr's "Ye Narcissus or Daffodyl Flowre, and hys Roots." Haworth wrote a monograph of narcissi in 1831, in which he made sixteen genera of the plants that are now referred to Narcissus. For 300 years and more, some of the species have been known as cultivated plants, and the literature runs through all the gardening books and periodicals. The number of good illustrations is also very large; some of the available portraits of the species and varieties in recent periodical literature are indicated in the systematic account herewith under the names that they bear in the journals. Some of the pictures used in this article are adapted from G.F. 5:209-13.
With few exceptions, the narcissi are hardy and strong-growing under ordinary cultivation. The "bunch-flowered" or polyanthus narcissi (N. Tazetta) and corbularias (N. Bilbocodium) are Better grown under glass. The moschatus varieties, which are white (or properly sulfur-white) forms, seem to be of rather tender constitution in most gardens. Otherwise the narcissi as a rule succeed in good turfy loam, but no manure, rotted or otherwise, must touch the bulbs. Of course drainage should be good, and moisture plentiful in the growing season. In the garden it is well to plant very strong bulbs say 6 or 8 inches deep, and 3 inches at most apart, and allow them to remain till they form strong groups, or until they show signs of too much exhaustion from numerous offsets. Weak or small bulbs should not go so deep. It is advised to cover the bulbs once and one-half their own depth or size, measuring the solid body part of the bulb and not the soft neck or top. They may be placed -a little deeper in light soils. The large bulbs may be 4 to 6 inches apart, and the smaller ones 3 to 4 inches. As decaying foliage is unsightly in the garden, a good plan is to dress the beds in the fall with rich manure, either animal or chemical, and in early spring start seedlings of annuals to cover the beds when the narcissi are through flowering, the dressing being necessary for the sustenance of the double crop. Too strong cultivation of the narcissi is not to be recommended, an extra vigor of growth being detrimental to the purity of the color of the flowers. If the object is to increase one's stock as quickly as possible, biennial or even annual lifting and separation of bulbs is advantageous. For naturalizing in waste places, in the grass, or near water, many of the strong-growing kinds will succeed perfectly.
The proper time to plant is in late summer or early autumn, and the poeticus kinds should not be kept out of ground longer than possible. Knob-like excrescences at the base of the bulbs indicate that growth is beginning and that planting should not be delayed. Partial shade, or at least protection from midday sun, is desirable, as the blooms last longer, and the colors are likely to be better. The old-fashioned or unimproved kinds will last for many years, but the more highly developed strains may need renewal every three or four years.
A most satisfactory planting of narcissi for house decoration is the use of flat lily pots, say 8 inches in diameter, placing the bulbs close together. The flowers carry best and keep better if cut when half open.
The intending collector will perhaps be confused when he opens a list of say 200 varieties, and it may be as well to say that a moderate beginning may be made by choosing a few of each section into which these are usually divided in good lists, bearing in mind that price is not an indication of the beauty or usefulness. As a matter of fact, the lower price is usually an indication that these are not uncertain and are probably more valuable in the garden.
Narcissi for naturalizing and bedding. (David Lumsden.)
Many attempts have been made to naturalize the narcissi in this country. Often, however, very little success has been achieved. The difficulties are due in a measure, first, to climatic conditions, the very dry summer weather being apparently detrimental to their growth; second, the cultural treatment afforded the plants. The former can be overcome to a considerable degree by planting the bulbs in a cool sheltered position where they will not be exposed to the prevailing dry winds. The latter difficulty can be remedied by changing cultural methods. Frequently the bulbs are placed in a lawn, and as soon as their flowering period is over the foliage is cut down to the ground. This practice is to be condemned as it seriously impairs the vitality of the plants, and in a comparatively few years they succumb. When naturalization of bulbs in the grass is desired, a part of the estate or grounds should be taken where the grass may remain unclipped until the ripening period of the bulbs approaches. This period is readily discernible, as the foliage will develop a yellow hue and wither. It is then that the grass may be mown and the bulbs will suffer no injury.
In colonizing narcissi bulbs, it is advisable to plant early in autumn or as soon as the bulbs are received, which is usually the month of October. The bulbs should be set 4 to 6 inches deep, the larger sorts 5 to 6 inches apart; and the smaller species and varieties 3 to 4 inches apart. The plants may be massed by the side of ponds or streams, along sides of shady, or partially shady, walks. Planting in open, bleak, and especially in windy situations, should be avoided. Under trees, the bulbs are likely to be short-lived unless they are well supplied with moisture and available food.
Bedding.—The daffodil lends itself admirably to formal bedding; work, and it is especially attractive when planted in combination with other bulbous or spring-bedding plants, such as Scilla sibirica or Myosotis scorpioides, the blue flowers of the scillas or myosotis making an attractive groundwork in contrast with the golden yellow trumpets of the daffodils. The daffodil also stands cold weather well and will recuperate after being subjected to a late spring freeze, showing no apparent sign of injury.
Section I. Large Trumpet Class. (a) Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus (Lent lily).
minimus princeps tortuosus Golden Spur obvallaris (Tenby daffodil) Henry Irving . (b) Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus.
Horsfieldii King Alfred maximus Victoria
(c) Narcissus Bulbocodium (the hoop-petticoat daffodil). Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus.
J. B. II. Camm
Glory of Leiden Madame de Graaff Madame Plemp
(e) Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus.
Section II. Medium-crowned Class.
(b) Narcissus Leedsii.
(c) Narcissus Leedsii, Barrii and others.
Duchesse de Brabant Mrs. Langtry C. J. Backhouse Stella
Duchess of Westminster Minnie Hume Cynosure
(d) Narcissus Leedsii, Barrii and others.
Barrii conspicuus Flora Wilson Barbara Holmes
Section III. Small-crowned Class.
(d) Narcissus Burbidgei.
(e) Narcissus poeticus.
Recurvus (pheasant's eye)
The forcing of narcissi under glass. (David Lumsden.)
Of late years the forcing of narcissi under glass has assumed immense proportions. Tens of thousands of these bulbs are forced annually by many of the larger florists' establishments in this country. With few exceptions, these bulbs are imported, France and. Holland supplying the major part. The earlier species, such as Narcissus Pseudo-Narcissus var. obvallaris (trumpet). N. Pseudo-Narcissus var. spurius, Golden Spur, and N. Tazetta var. papyraceus (paper-white narcissus), are received from France and arrive early in August, while the larger importations of the various species are received from Holland the latter part of September. The French bulbs therefore give the earlier bloom.
When the bulbs arrive, they should at once be placed in the pots or boxes in which they are to be grown. Immediate potting is a necessity, as the flowering quality of a bulb is greatly impaired if it is kept out of the soil any great length of time. This is especially true if the bulb is exposed to the influence of a dry warm office or storeroom. If the bulbs are to be grown for home or conservatory decoration, a pot or pan, preferably 6 to 8 inches in diameter, is used, five to nine bulbs being placed in each, according to the size of the bulbs. If grown in boxes for cut-flowers, 24 by 12 by 3 inches is a convenient size to handle.
The soil should be rich and composed of two-thirds good garden loam and one-third leaf-mold or well-decayed stable-manure, with an admixture of sand sufficient to keep the compost open. The pots should be well drained with crocks or cinders, and the soil pressed firmly around the bulbs, leaving the tips just visible. Allow ½ inch of space between the top of the soil and the top of the pot to insure that the plants are well watered when being forced. When the bulbs are potted they should be placed close together in a cold pit or frame and given a thorough watering, covering them at once with 5 or 6 inches of screened cinders or sand, which acts as a non-conductor. The object of this is to keep them from drying out, and at the same time to maintain a low temperature which will induce them to develop good root-action. Before removing any bulbs from the cold frame or pit to the forcing- house, it is imperative that they be well rooted, as many of the failures in bulb-forcing are due to disregard of this essential precaution. A temperature of 55° to 60° F. at night in the forcing-house will be adequate. It will require four to six weeks' forcing to bring the bulbs into flower, depending in a measure on the season and the varieties forced.
Bulbs of the hardy narcissi which have not been unduly forced, may be planted outside when the ground is in condition in spring. These bulbs will yield a display of flowers in the garden the second year after forcing, and continue for years if the conditions are right.
The following species and varieties are among the most useful for forcing:
N. Tazetta var. papyraceus (paper-white narcissus) is the most useful of the florists' narcissi. Its pure white flowers are of great value to the trade. It is one of the easiest to force and the first to appear on the market.
N.Pseudo-narcissus var. Van Sion (double daffodil) is grown both in boxes for cut-flowers, and in bulb- pans and pots to be used for conservatory and home decoration. Not being adapted to early forcing, the first batch of plants should not be brought into the forcing-house before the end of December or early January.
Narcissus pseudo-narcissus var. obvallaris major (Tenby daffodil), N. Pseudo-Narcissus var. Golden Spur, N. Pseudo-Narcissus var. Princeps, Emperor, Empress, and King Alfred, N. incomparabilis var. Sir Watkin, N. Leedsii var. Duchess of Westminster, N. Barrii var. conspicuus, N. Jonquilla, N. Tazetta, N. poeticus and N. poeticus var. patellaris are all desirable forms. For very early forcing, Narcissus Pseudo- Narcissus var. obvallaris, N. Pseudo-Narcissus Var. Golden Spur, and N. Tazetta var. papyraceus are most largely grown. Only first-class bulbs should be used for forcing purposes. Bulbs potted early in September will be well rooted by the middle of October, at which time some of the earliest narcissi may be placed in the forcing-house; and by bringing in a batch each week, a continuous display of flowers may be had from November until Easter. For the best results in forcing bulbs, the night temperature should not exceed 60° F.
Growing bulbs in water on pebbles.— Recently much interest has been taken in growing narcissus bulbs in vessels containing water and pebbles. The culture is simple, and such bulbs may be readily grown under dwelling-house conditions. The bulbs should be placed in shallow jardinieres or saucers with clean white pebbles arranged around them to keep them in position and to hold them up. The jardinieres should be kept supplied with water sufficient to keep the roots submerged. Narcissus Tazetta var. papyraceus (paper- white narcissus) and N. Tazetta var. orientalis (Chinese sacred lily) are the most popular and useful for this purpose.
N.abscissus Schult .-N. Pseudo-Narcissus var. muticus.— Ajax is an old generic name for N. Pseudo-Narcissus; this species is now sometimes called the Ajax narcissus.—N. Backhousei, Hort. (N. Pseudo-Narcissus X incomparabilis; or N. Pseudo-Narcissus X Tazetta, or N. bicolor X poeticus) has single horizontal sulfur- yellow fls. with tube about half equaling the segms., the latter about 1-1 ¼ in- long; crown lemon-yellow, nearly equaling segms., erect, deeply lobed and plicate.—N. Barrii, Hort. (N. poeticus X Pseudo- Narcissus or N. incomparabilis X poeticus), of the medium-crowned section, has yellow horizontal fls. with long, slender neck; "covers a series of forms intermediate between incomparabilis and poeticus, nearer the former than the latter" (Baker); Fig. 2446. G.M. 51:644. Gn. 73, p. 599; 78, p. 458 (all as N. Barrii conspicuus). A popular form (sec p. 2106).—N. Bernardii. Hen., is like N. Macleaii, but with a more plicate and deeper-colored corona, which is orange or lemon-yellow, and half as long as the spreading white segms. Pyrenees, said to occur where N. Pseudo-Narcissus var. muticus and N. poeticus grow together.—Bunch-flowered daffodils are N. Tazetta.—N. Broussonetii, Lag. Lvs. linear, about 4 to a st.: scape 1 ft., 2-edged: fls. many in an umbel, the cylindrical tube whitish, the oblong obtuse segms. : ½in. long and pure white; crown rudimentary; anthers exserted. Morocco.—-N. Burbidgei, Hort. (probably N. incomparabilis X poeticus, in a series of forms), short-crowned: it has the habit of N. poeticus, with a solitary drooping fl. with white horizontal or somewhat reflexed segms. and a very short corona with a yellow base and red rim.—Cambricus is an early bicolor form of N. Pseudo-Narcissus: segms. sulfur-white; crown or trumpet yellow.—Capax plenus is an old double form, lemon-yellow.—N. Cooksoniae, Hort., is a creamy-white variety of the Leedsii type. G.C. III. 47:336.— Corbularia narcissi are the N. Bulbocodium forms. Corbularia is an old generio name for this species.—Daffodil. The word daffodil is variously used. In this country it means usually the full double forms of N. Pseudo-Narcissus, plants that are very common in old gardens. Modern named varieties of this daffodil type are Van Sion and Rip Van Winkle. In England, however, daffodil is a more general term, used for most species except the Poet's narcissus (N. poeticus).— N. elegans: . Spach (N. autumnalis, Link). Autumn-flowering: bulb globose, ½in. diam.: lvs. 1-4, appearing with the fls., very narrow, subterete: scape stiff and erect: fls. 2-6, on erect pedicels; perianth-tube cylindrical, whitish, about ½in. long; segms. spreading, lanceolate, pure white; crown very short, saucer-like, yellow, Italy, Algeria.—.N Engleheartii Hort. Hybrids of N. incomparabilis and N. poeticus, the name of recent origin: much like N. Burbidgei but the flat crown or cup is ruffled or fluted. This comprises the relatively new section of "flat-eyes" or "flat-crowns," although the cup may take the form of a shallow wide-mouthed funnel.—N Fosteri Lynch. Garden hybrid between N. Bulbocodium var. citrinus and N. triandrus, the latter probably the male parent: scapes 2-fld.: fls. have the Bulbocodium character in size and shape of perianth, lanceolate segms. and declinate stamens: lvs. much like those of N. triandrus; crown and segms. pale yellow, tube greenish. G.C. III. 47:342.—Flat-leaved narcissi are the various forms of N. Pseudo-Narcissus.—Ganymedes is an old generic name for N. triandrus and its forms.—Giganteus- Sir Watkin.—Grandiflors is applied to a large-fld. white form of N. Tazetta.—N. Humei. Hort., has a single nodding medium-crowned yellow fl. with long, straight cup about 1 in. long (often equaling the segms., but variable in size); segms. oblong, somewhat ascending, 1 ½_ in. long: fls. said to have "a deformed clipt-off appearance." Ascribed to N. Pseudo-Narcissus and N. poculiformis.—Incognita, one of the Engleheartii forms, or by some referred to N. Barrii. Gn. 71, p. vii, Nov. 30 (1907); 73, p. 301. G.M. 54:300.—N. Leedsii, Hort.. has horizontal or drooping fls. with white segms. and yellow to whitish medium corona; described by Baker as having perianthtube subcylindrical, ' ¾ n. long; segms. spreading, oblong, acute, milk-white, to 1 ¼in. long and to ¾in. broad; crown cup-shaped. ½in. long, sulfur-yellow, erect and irregularly crenate-plicate; style overtopping anthers and reaching nearly to throat of crown: intermediate between N. poculiformis and incomparabilis, but said by some to be produced by crossing white N. Pseudo-Narcissus varieties with N. poeticus. (See p. 2106.)—Lent Lily-N. Pseudo- Narcissus. Lobularius is a confused name, usually applied to the deep yellow double daffodil, N. Pseudo-Narcissus.—Lusitanicus is a name for a bicolor N. Pseudo-Narcissus.—N Macleaii, Lindl., is a 1-fld. plant of small growth, bearing horizontal short-tubed fls. with milk-white segms. and medium-sized yellow crenate corona half or more the length of the lobes; segms, much imbricated, about ¾ in long, crown about 1/2 in long, minutely crenulate; style included. Of doubtful origin, several species having been suggested as parents. B.M. 2588. B.R. 987. Gn.69.p. 103.—N. Mastersianus is a hybrid of N. Tazetta and N. poculiformis.—N. Milneri, hybrid of N. incomparabilis and N. Pseudo-Narcissus var. moschatus.—N. minicyda, Hort. A garden hybrid between N. cyclamineus and N. minimus.— N montanus, Ker-N. poculiformis.—N. Nelsonii, Hort., a subtype of N. Macleaii, very robust, and fls. larger (2-3 in. across), the lemon-yellow corona more than half as long as the segms.—N. pallidus, a whitish form of N. Pseudo-Narcissus.—Pallidus praecox is a pale sulfur-colored early form. Gn. 60, p. 320; 65. p. 271. G. 30: 215.—Peerless narcissi are the forms of N. incomparabilis.—N. poculiformis, Salisb. (N. montanus, Her; B.R. 123) has 1 or 2 nodding medium-crowned white fls. and a cup-shaped corona about half the length of the segms.; origin doubtful: by some regarded as a hybrid and by others as a native of the Pyrenees.—Princeps, sulfur-yellow and yellow-crowned, a form of the N. Pseudo-Narcissus type. G.C. III. 29:182.— Queltia is an old generic name to distinguish the group comprising N. incomparabilis.—Rip Van Winkle is a double variety of N. Pseudo-Narcissus.—Roman narcissus is a name for double-fld. N. Tazetta, white with orange cup. —Rugilobus, large-fld. variety of N. Pseudo-Narcissus, with primrose perianth and yellow trumpet. G. 16:89.—Salmonetta, raised by Engleheart: perianth clear white; cup salmon-orange; fl. star-like. Gn. 63, p. 393.—Scoticus, N. Pseudo-Narcissus with deep yellow corona and whitish segms.; known as Scotch garland lily. There is also a double form.—N. serotinus. Linn. Autumnal: bulb globose, 1 in. or less in diam.: lvs. appearing after the fls., very slender: scape very slender and jointed low down: fls. 1 or 2; tube subcylindrical, greenish; segins. oblanceolate, obtuse, spreading, pure white, about ½in- long; crown very short, 6-lobed, lemon- yellow. Medit. region.—Sir Watkin or giganteus is a very large-fld. form of N. incomparabilis.—N. Sprengeri vomerensis is a garden hybrid between N. Pseudo-Narcissus and N. Tazetta. Carl Sprenger, Naples.—Spurius, a yellow N. Pseudo-Narcissus, a sub form of var. major.—Stella, one of the star-narcissi of the N. incomparabilis group; now represented by Stella Superba, about twice the size, with long white spreading segms. and cup clear yellow. J.H. III. 43:269.—Telamonius plenus is the common sulfur-yellow double daffodil, N. Pseudo-Narcissus. Gn. 73, p. 227.—Tortuosus has twisted segms.: a form of N. Pseudo-Narcissus.—Tridymus is like N. Nelsoni, but has 2-3 smaller fls., with tube usually obconic (N. Pseudo-Narcissus X Tazetta).— Van Sion is a large pure yellow and very double form of N. Pseudo-Narcissus of the Telamonius set; much used for forcing. There is also a single Van Sion. —-Variiformis is a form of N. Pseudo-Narcissus with canary- yellow corona and white segms., the fls. variable.—.N. viridiflorus, Schousb. Autumnal: bulb globose, 1 in. diam.: lvs. 1 or 2 to st., subterete, not appearing with the bloom: fls. 2—4, on a slender fragile scape, green in all parts; perianth-tube cylindrical and slender, about ½in. long; segms. lanceolate, reflecting, short; crown very short, 6-lobed; anthers barely exserted. Gibralter, Morocco; very late. B.M. 1687. G.C. III. 40:375.
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963