|Hakea subsp. var.||Hakea|
Hakea (Hakea) is a genus of 149 species of shrubs and small trees in the Proteaceae, native to Australia. They are found throughout the country, with the highest species diversity being found in the south west of Western Australiawp.
They can reach 1-6 m in height, and have spirally arranged leaves 2-20 cm long, simple or compound, sometimes (e.g. H. suaveolens) with the leaflets thin cylindrical and rush-likewp. The flowers are produced in dense flowerheads of variable shape, globose to cylindrical, 3-10 cm long, with numerous small red, yellow, pink, purple, pale blue or white flowerswp.
It is now widely accepted that Grevillea is paraphyletic with respect to Hakea. It is likely, therefore, that Hakea will soon be transferred into Grevilleawp.
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Hakea (after Baron von Hake, a German friend of botany). Proteaceae. Australian evergreen shrubs cultivated indoors abroad, much used for ornamental planting in the open in California.
The foliage of the various species of Hakea is exceedingly diverse; in some the lvs. are flat and broad, and then entire or merely toothed, in others they are terete, and then either simple and entire or pinnately parted: fls. in pairs, the pairs commonly crowded in close racemes or globose clusters, these mostly sessile in the lf. axils; corolla-tube slender, usually recurved beneath the limb, which is mostly globose, the 4 lobes cohering long after the tube has opened; lobes concave and bear sessile anthers; the single style either long or short but always dilated at the end: fr. a hard woody caps, opening in 2 valves and bearing 2 compressed winged seeds.—Ninety-five species are fully described in English, with a key in Flora Australiensis 5:489 (1870). Eleven species grown in Calif, are described and discussed, with a key and 8 illustrations in Univ. Calif. Pub. Botany 4:14-20 (1910).
Hakeas are drought-resistant plants which endure moderate frost and are therefore well adapted to the drier parts of the South and Southwest. In California they are grown as far north as Sacramento. One of these, H. laurina, produces strikingly handsome fls.; H. elliptica is prized for the bronze color of its young foliage; while the spiny-leaved species are serviceable for planting in public parks or in any place where it is necessary for shrubs to protect themselves from pedestrians or vandals.
Hakeas may be propagated by cuttings taken from ripened shoots but they are almost universally grown from seeds. These are gathered from year-old capsules which are very hard and must be dried for some time before they will open. The seeds are sown in winter or early spring in the ordinary mixture of sand, leaf-mold, and loam; they germinate easily, even without, heat. The young seedlings are pricked off into boxes and held in the lathhouse for a season before planting in the open. For best results hakeas should be grown in light, well-drained soil and need but little water after they are once established; much moisture is injurious except during the summer months.
H. aquifolia, is a garden name sometimes applied to H. saligna. H. cyclocarpa, Lindl. Foliage as in H. laurina but lvs. and fr. larger, the fl.-heads not involucrate: corolla silky-pubescent. Once offered by Franeeschi.—H. multilineata, Meissn. Related to H. laurina: lf.-veins more numerous: fl.-clusters oblong: fr. only Min. broad. G.C. III. 19:85 (var.). Reported but apparently never intro.—H. nftida, R. Br. Lvs. bright green, oblong, entire or toothed: fls. white, in stalked clusters: fr. 1 in. long by ½ in. broad. B.M. 2246.—H. undulata, R. Br. Lvs. glabrous, obovate or rarely lanceolate: fls. small, in axillary clusters: fr. recurved at base, 1 ½ in. long by ¾ in. broad, distinctly beaked.—H. varia, R. Br. Some lvs. with nearly terete lobes, then resembling H. suavcolena, but varying to flat and holly-like, 1-2 in. long, obscurely veined or veinless. always tapering at the base: fls. in small clusters, the rachia villous, pedicels and small corolla glabrous: fr. ¾ in. long by ½ in. broad. Offered by Franceschi.
Harvey Monroe Hall.
Some showy western species, such as Hakea multilineata, H. francisiana and H. bucculenta, require grafting onto hardy stock such as Hakea salicifolia for growing in more humid climates, as they are sensitive to dieback.
Many species, particularly (but not always) Eastern Australian species, are notable for their hardiness, to the point they have become weedy. Hakea gibbosa, H. sericea and H. drupacea (previously H. suaveolens) have been weeds in South Africa, Hakea laurina has become naturalized around Adelaide.
Pests and diseases
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963
- Barker WR, Barker RM, Haegi L (1999). "Hakea". in Wilson, Annette (ed.). Flora of Australia: Volume 17B: Proteaceae 3: Hakea to Dryandra. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. pp. 1–170. ISBN 0-643-06454-0.
- Holliday Ivan (2005). Hakeas:a field and garden guide. Reed New Holland. ISBN 1-877069-14-0.
- Young Jennifer (2006). Hakeas of Western Australia : a field and identification guide. J.A. Young. ISBN 9780958577823.
Hakea seed pod, ACT, Aust.