|Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. var.||Sea-buckthorn|
The sea-buckthorns (Hippophae L.) are deciduous shrubs in the genus Hippophae, family Elaeagnaceae. The name sea-buckthorn is hyphenated here to avoid confusion with the buckthorns (Rhamnus, family Rhamnaceae). It is also referred to as "sea buckthorn", seabuckthorn, sandthorn or seaberry.
There are 6 species and 12 subspecies native over a wide area of Europe and Asia. The shrubs reach 0.5–6 m tall, rarely up to 10 m in central Asia, and typically occur in dry, sandy areas. They are tolerant of salt in the air and soil, but demand full sunlight for good growth and do not tolerate shady conditions near larger trees.
Common sea-buckthorn has branches that are dense and stiff, and very thorny. The leaves are a distinct pale silvery-green, lanceolate, 3–8 cm long and less than 7 mm broad. It is dioecious, with separate male and female plants. The male produces brownish flowers which produce wind-distributed pollen.
The female plants produce orange berries 6–9 mm in diameter, soft, juicy and rich in oils.
A decidious Shrub growing to 6m by 2.5m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. It can fix Nitrogen.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Hippophae rhamnoides, Linn. Shrub or tree, occasionally to 30 ft.: branches gray, usually spiny: winter-buds golden brown: lvs. linear-lanceolate, short-petioled, obtusish, covered on both sides with silver)' scales, at maturity above often glabrescent, ¾ -2 ½ in. long: fls. appearing before the lvs., very small, yellowish: fr. subglobose or ovoid, orange-yellow, ¼ - 1/3 in. long, ripening in Sept. Eu. through W. and Cent. Asia to the Altai, W. China and N. W. Himalayas.
Var. angustifolia, Loud., a form with pendulous branches and narrow lvs.
Var. procera, Rend. Tree, to 50 ft.: young growth villous: lvs. oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, with stellate hairs above, finally glabrous above. W. China.
Succeeds in most soils, including poor ones, so long as they are not too dry[182, 200]. Grows well by water and in fairly wet soils. Established plants are very drought resistant. Requires a sunny position, seedlings failing to grow in a shady position and mature shrubs quickly dying if overshadowed by taller plants. Does well in very sandy soils[1, 186]. Very tolerant of maritime exposure. Plants are fairly slow growing. Although usually found near the coast in the wild, they thrive when grown inland and are hardy to about -25°c. A very ornamental plant[1, 11], it is occasionally cultivated, especially in N. Europe, for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties. 'Leikora' is a free-fruiting form, developed for its ornamental value. Members of this genus are attracting considerable interest from breeding institutes for their nutrient-rich fruits that can promote the general health of the body (see edible and medicinal uses below). This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[113, 186, 200]. Plants produce abundant suckers, especially when grown on sandy soils. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. The sexes of plants cannot be distinguished before flowering, but on flowering plants the buds of male plants in winter are conical and conspicuous whilst female buds are smaller and rounded. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
Seed - sow spring in a sunny position in a cold frame. Germination is usually quick and good although 3 months cold stratification may improve the germination rate. Alternatively the seed can be sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring into their permanent positions. Male seedlings, in spring, have very prominent axillary buds whilst females are clear and smooth at this time. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, June/July in a frame. Difficult. This is the easiest method of vegetative propagation. Cuttings of mature wood in autumn. Difficult. The cuttings should be taken at the end of autumn or very early in the spring before the buds burst. Store them in sand and peat until April, cut into 7 - 9cm lengths and plant them in a plastic tent with bottom heat. Rooting should take place within 2 months and they can be put in their permanent positions in the autumn. Division of suckers in the winter. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions and usually establish well and quickly[K]. Layering in autumn.
Pests and diseases
- 'Novostj Altaja' - Medium-sized fruit of high quality, each weighing just over ½ gram on average. A very productive tree, yielding on average 15 tonnes of fruit per hectare, the branches are relatively free of spines. This is the most wilt-resistant cultivar developed to date (1990).
- 'Vitaminnaja' - Medium-size fruit of good quality, weighing just under ½ gram on average. Richer in vitamins and minerals than 'Novostj Altaja', though more acidic in flavour. A moderately productive tree, though somewhat susceptible to wilt.
- Plants for a Future - source of some of the creative commons text in this article.
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963