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[[{{{domain}}}]] > [[{{{superregnum}}}]] > Plantae > [[{{{subregnum}}}]] > [[{{{superdivisio}}}]] > [[{{{superphylum}}}]] > [[]] > [[{{{phylum}}}]] > [[{{{subdivisio}}}]] > [[{{{subphylum}}}]] > [[{{{infraphylum}}}]] > [[{{{microphylum}}}]] > [[{{{nanophylum}}}]] > [[{{{superclassis}}}]] > [[]] > [[{{{subclassis}}}]] > [[{{{infraclassis}}}]] > [[{{{superordo}}}]] > [[]] > [[{{{subordo}}}]] > [[{{{infraordo}}}]] > [[{{{superfamilia}}}]] > Liliaceae > [[{{{subfamilia}}}]] > [[{{{supertribus}}}]] > [[{{{tribus}}}]] > [[{{{subtribus}}}]] > [[{{{genus}}}]] {{{subgenus}}} {{{sectio}}} {{{series}}} {{{species}}} {{{subspecies}}} var. {{{cultivar}}}

Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

Liliaceae (from the genus Lilium, classical Latin name). Lily Family. Fig. 11. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, usually with rootstocks or bulbs, sometimes climbing: leaves alternate, rarely with petiole and blade: flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular, hypogynous, rarely epigynous, not subtended by spathes; perianth petaloid, of 6 similar parts, in 2 series, the parts separate or connate, rarely differentiated into a green calyx and colored corolla; stamens 6, rarely fewer, hypogynous, or borne upon the perianth; carpels 3, rarely more or fewer, united, rarely free; ovary usually 3-celled; ovules 1 to many in each cell; styles and stigmas 1-3: fruit a capsule or berry.

There are about 200 genera and 2,000 species, distributed in all parts of the world. The large genera are Smilax with 200 species, Allium with 250 species, Asparagus with 100 species. Aloe with 85 species and Scilla with 80 species. The Liliaceae, taken in the broader sense, as is done by Bentham & Hooker, and by Engler, is an easily recognized group except in unusual cases. The regular, 6-parted perianth, 6 stamens, and 3-celled superior ovary are distinctive. The family has been divided by Engler into 11 tribes. The Liliaceae furnishes a host of cultivated plants.

The following plants, among others, have been or are used in medicine: Amianthium muscaetoxicum of North America as a narcotic and a fly poison; various species of Uvularia of North America as a gargle and for rattlesnake bites; the root of Polygonatum sp. in Europe as a vulnery, and the berries as an emetic and purgative; the berries of Smilacina racemosa of North America as a tonic; the root of Convallaria majalis of Europe as a purgative; the leaves of Streptopus amplexicaulis of North America as a gargle; the roots of Ruscus of Europe as a diuretic and emmenagogue; the roots of Smilax sp. of the tropics (the sarsaparillas of commerce) as a tonic and diuretic; the roots of Asparagus officinalis in Europe as an aperient, the berries as a diuretic and aphrodisiac, and the shoots as a sedative and cardiac; the roots of Cordyline of the southern tropics for dysentery; the flowers of C. deflexa as an emmenagogue; the resin from Xanthorhaea hastilis (Botany Bay gum, with a fragrance like benzoin) in Australia for throat troubles; the resin of X. australis (grass tree gum, earth shellac, or nut pitch) for various purposes; the tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus (serpent's beard) in China and Japan for abdominal troubles; the bulbs of Gagea of Europe as an emetic; the flowers of Hemerocallis of Europe as a cordial; the leaves of species of Aloes of the Old World as a tonic, purgative, and emmenagogue (A. Perryi is Socotrine aloes, A. vera is Barbadoes aloes, and A. spicata is Cape aloes); the bulb of Urginea maritima (squills) of the Mediterranean as a diuretic, expectorant, and emetic: Allium sp. as a vermifuge and carminative; the bulbs of Hyacinthus, Muscari, and Ornithogalum of Europe as purgatives and diuretics; Ornithogalum altissimum of the Cape as a remedy for asthma and catarrh; Anthericum and Asphodelus as diuretics and emmenagogues; Tulbaghia of the Cape as a vermifuge and for phthisis; the poisonous root of Veratrum album (white hellebore) of Europe as a violent purge and emetic, and to exterminate vermin; V. nigrum (black h.) of Europe, and V. viride (green h.) of the United States, occasionally, for the same purpose; Schoenocaulon officinalis (cavadilla or sabadilla) of Mexico for vermin and as a vermifuge; the narcotic, poisonous root and seeds of Colchicum officinale of Europe as a cathartic, emetic, and sedative; and Helonias bullata of North America as a vermifuge. The roots of Gloriosa, also, are poisonous. Dracaena Draco, the dragon tree of the Canaries and Teneriffe, famous for the extreme age and size of the trees, was superstitiously revered by the ancients. The red resinous astringent exudation of these plants was called dragon's blood.

The following have been used for food: Bulbs of Camassia esculenta, western United States; bulbs and leaves of Allium sp. (onion, leek, eschalot or shallot, rochambole); shoots of Polygonatum, Europe, United States; shoots of Asparagus officinalis; roots of Cordyline sp., in South Sea Islands, and there called ti. The seeds of Ruscus are a substitute for coffee.

A few have been used for other purposes: Roots of Yucca for soap; fibers of New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax) for fabrics; and the fragrant root of Dianella nemorosa for incense.

For ornament, great numbers of genera and species are in cultivation.

Very many genera are in cultivation, some common, for ornamental purposes unless otherwise stated. Among these are Agapanthus (African Lily, Lily-of-the-Nile); Aletris (Colic Root), native; Allium (Onion, Chives, Cives, Garlic, Leek, Shallot), ornament and food; Asphodeline (True Asphodel, King's Spear): Asphodelus (Branching Asphodel); Bessera (Mexican Coral Drops); Brevoortia (Floral Fire-Cracker); Brodiaea; Calochortus (Star Tulip, Globe Flower, Mariposa Lily, Butterfly Tulip); Camassia (Camass); Chionodoxa (Glory-of-the-Snow); Chlorogalum (Soap Plant, Amole); Clintonia, native; Colchicum (Meadow Saffron, Autumn Crocus); Cordyline (Dracaena); Dasylirion; Dracaena (Dragon Tree); Erythronium (Dog’s-tooth Violet, Adder’s Tongue); Eucomis (Royal Crown, Pineapple Flower); Fritillaria (Crown Imperial, Black Lily, Checkered Lily); Funkia (Day Lily, Plantain Lily); Galtonia (Giant Summer Hyacinth); Gasteria; Gloriosa (Climbing Lily); Haworthia; Helonias (Swamp Pink, Stud Pink); Hemerocallis (Yellow Day Lily, Lemon Lily); Hyacinthus (Hyacinth); Kniphofia (Red-hot-poker Plant, Torch Lily, Flame Flower); Lachenalia (Cape Cowslip); Lapageria (Chilean Bell flower); Leucocrinum (Sand Lily) ; Lilium (Lily, Easter Lily, Madonna Lily, Tiger Lily, Japan Lily, Turk's-cap Lily); Littonia (Climbing Lily); Maianthemum (False Lily-of-the-Valley, Two-leaved False Solomon's Seal), native; Medeola (Indian Cucumber Root), native; Melanthium (Bunch Flower); Milla (Mexican Star, Mexican Star of Bethlehem, Frost Flower, Floating Star); Muscari (Grape Hyacinth, Musk Hyacinth, Feathered Hyacinth); Narthecium (Bog Asphodel) ; Molina; Nothoscordum (Yellow False Garlic, Streaked-leaved Garlic): Oakesia (Wild Oats), native; Ornithogalum (Star of Bethlehem); Paradisea (St. Bruno's Lily, St. Bernard's Lily); Paris (Herb Paris, Love Apple, True Love); Phormium (New Zealand Flax); Polygonatum (Solomon's Seal); Ruscus (Butcher's Broom); Sansevieria (Bow-string Hemp); Scilla (Squill, Wild Hyacinth, Bluebell, Harebell, Spanish Jacinth, Sea Onion, Starry Hyacinth, Cuban Lily, Hyacinth of Peru, Peruvian Jacinth); Semele (Climbing Butcher's Broom); Smilacina (False Solomon's Seal), native; Smilax; Streptopus (Twisted Stalk), native; Tricyrtis (Toad Lily); Trillium (Wake-Robin, Birthroot, Bethroot, White Wood Lily, Ground Lily), native; Triteleia (Spring Star-Flower); Tulipa (Tulip); Urginea (Sea Onion, Squills); Uvularia (Bell-wort, Wild Oats), native; Veratrum (False Hellebore, White Hellebore, Green Hellebore, Black Hellebore, Indian Poke); Xanthorrhoea (Grass Tree, Grass Gum, Black Boy); Xerophyllum (Turkey's Beard); Yucca (Spanish Bayonet, Adam's Needle, Bear Grass, Silk Grass); Zygadenus (Fly-poison).CH

The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.



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