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 Orchis subsp. var.  
Orchis italica
Habit: orchid
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Lifespan: perennial
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Orchidaceae > Orchis var. ,

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Orchis is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae). This genus gets its name from the Greek orchis, meaning "testicle", from the appearance of the paired subterranean tuberoids.

This genus occurs mainly in Europe, NW Africa, and it stretches as far Tibet, Mongolia, China and Japan.

These terrestrial orchids have tubers instead of pseudobulbs. They are extremely diverse in appearance. They produce an erect stem. The inflorescence is a cylindrical to globular spike 5 – 15 cm long with yellow, red to purple flowers. They start flowering at the base, slowly progressing upwards, except the Monkey orchid (Orchis simia) that flowers in reverse order.

Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

Orchis (Greek word, referring to the shape of the tuberous roots of certain species). Orchidaceae. The typical genus of the great family of orchids.

Plants perennial by means of simple or palmate tubers: st. simple, erect, terminating m a raceme or spike, with few to many rather small fls., and bearing several lvs. with long sheaths: bracts often foliaceous: sepals all similar, connivent or spreading' petals often smaller, entire; labellum 3-lobed, middle lobe entire or parted, base spurred; column very short or none; stigma plane, not produced (Habenaria).—About 70 species, all terrestrial and natives of the northern hemisphere, chiefly in Eu. and Asia, with 2 species in N. Amer. For Orchis spectabilis, Linn., see Galeorchis.

Orchises are not showy, and they have no horticultural standing, but lovers of hardy orchids collect them and try to cultivate them, usually with little success. They will probably thrive under the treatment given Galeorchis, of which F. W. Barclay writes: "The American species of Orchis are woodland plants, requiring rich leaf soil, with rather heavy shade, and that even condition of moisture characteristic of deep woods. Where these conditions cannot be supplied, the plants invariably prove short-lived." See also discussion on terrestrial orchids, page 2392.

The following species are advertised in Amer. by European dealers, but are not known to be cult, in Amer. Most of them are hardy European plants. The synonomy of the group is somewhat confused. O. Brancifortii, fls. purple.—O. foliosa, large, leafy spikes of purple fls.—O. fusca, purple- and rose-colored fls.—O. latifolia, spotted Lvs. and purple fls.—O. longicarnis, fls. rich purple. N. Afr.—O. maculata, fls. lilac-purple.—O. masscula, fls. purple, in long spikes.—O. militaris, fls. purple.—O. Morio, fla. purple and green.—O. pallens, pale sulfur-yellow.—0. papilionacea, fls. purple and white.—O. provincialis, long spikes of pale lemon- yellow fls.—O. Robertiana, fls. purple, brown and white, in large spikes.—O. sambucina, fls. yellow.—O. undulatifolia, fls. white- and rose-colored.

The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.



Pests and diseases


List of accepted names :

  • Orchis adenocheilae Czernaik. (1924) (Iran)
  • Orchis anatolica Boiss. (1844) : Anatolian Orchis (Cyprus, Turkey, Southern Aegean Islands, Lebanon, Israel, Iran)
    • Orchis anatolica subsp. anatolica
    • Orchis anatolica subsp. troodi (Renz) Renz (1932).
  • Orchis anthropophora (L.) All. (1785) (Western Europe to Mediterranean)
  • Orchis brancifortii Biv. (1813) (Southern Italy, Sicilia, Sardinia)
  • Orchis canariensis Lindl. (1835) (Canary islands)
  • Orchis cazorlensis Lacaita (1930): Hunter's Orchis (Spain, Baleares)
  • Orchis dinsmorei (Schlechter) H.Baumann & Dafni (Israel) (synonym of Anacamptis laxiflora (Lam.) R.M.Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W.Chase )
  • Orchis fauriei Finet (1808) (Japan)
  • Orchis galilaea (Bornm. & M.Schulze) Schltr. (1923) (Turkey, Lebanon, Israel)
  • Orchis insularis Sommier (1895) (Italy)
  • Orchis italica Poir. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck (1798): Naked Man Orchid, Italian Orchis (Mediterranean)
  • Orchis mascula (L.) L. (1755) : Early Purple Orchid, Male Orchis (N. & C. Europe to Iran, Canary Islands)
    • Orchis mascula subsp. acutiflora (W.D.J.Koch) Quentin (1993)
    • Orchis mascula subsp. hispanica (A.Niesch. & C.Niesch.) Soó (1972) (Southern Pyrenees, Spain, Portugal, Morocco)
    • Orchis mascula subsp. longibracteatoides Balayer (1986) (Eastern Pyrenees)
    • Orchis mascula subsp. longicalcarata Akhalkatski, H. Baumann, R. Lorenz, Mosulishvili &R. Peter (2005) (Eastern and central Caucasus)
    • Orchis mascula subsp. maghrebiana B. Baumann & H. Baumann (2005)(Morocco)
    • Orchis mascula subsp. mascula (N. & C. Europe to Iran, Canary Islands)
    • Orchis mascula subsp. pinetorum (Boiss. & Kotschy) E.G.Camus (1908) (Macedonia to Iran)
    • Orchis mascula subsp. speciosa (Mutel) Hegi (1909) (Europe)
    • Orchis mascula subsp. wanjkovii (E.Wulff) Soó in G.Keller & al. (1932) (Crimea)
  • Orchis militaris L. (1753) : Military Orchid (Europe to Mongolia)
  • Orchis pallens L. (1771): Pale-flowered Orchid (Europe to Caucasus)
  • Orchis patens Desf. (1799) (Central Mediterranean to NW. Africa)
    • Orchis patens subsp. nitidifolia W.P.Teschner (1975) (Crete)
    • Orchis patens subsp. patens (Central Mediterranean to NW. Africa)
  • Orchis provincialis Balb. (1806): Provence Orchis (SC. & S. Europe to Caucasus, NW Africa)
    • Orchis provincialis subsp. pauciflora (Ten.) E.G.Camus (1908) (S. Europe to Crimea)
    • Orchis provincialis subsp. provincialis (SC. & S. Europe to Caucasus)
    • Orchis provincialis var. laeta (Steinh.) Maire & Weiller in R.C.J.Maire (1959) (Algeria, Tunisia)
  • Orchis punctulata Steven ex Lindl. (1835) : Small-dotted Orchis (SE. Europe to W. Asia)
  • Orchis purpurea Huds. (1762) : Lady orchid, Purple Orchis (Europe to Caucasus, Algeria)
  • Orchis quadripunctata Cirillo ex Ten. (1811): Four-spotted Orchis (Sardinia to Eastern Mediterranean)
  • Orchis scopulorum Summerh. (1961) : Branching Orchis (Madeira)
  • Orchis sezikiana B.Baumann & H.Baumann (1991) (Crete, Cyprus, SW Turkey)
  • Orchis simia Lam. (1779) : Monkey Orchid (Europe to Iran, N. Africa)
  • Orchis spitzelii Saut. ex W.D.J.Koch (1837) : Spitzel's Orchis (Sweden (Gotland), E. Spain to Caucasus, NW. Africa)
    • Orchis spitzelii subsp. latiflora B. Baumann & H. Baumann (2005) (Lebanon)
    • Orchis spitzelii subsp. teschneriana B. Baumann & H. Baumann (2005) (Northern Algeria)
  • Orchis tridentata R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W. Chase: Three-toothed orchid (southern Europe from Spain to Turkey and the Lebanon; northwards to the Crimea, Poland and Germany)[1][2]
  • Orchis wardii W.W.Sm. (1921) (S. & E. Tibet to SC. China)

Natural hybrids

  • Orchis × angusticruris Franch. in V.Humnicki (1876) (Orchis purpurea × Orchis simia) (Europe to Caucasus)
  • Orchis × apollinaris W.Rossi & al. (1992) (Orchis italica × Orchis simia) (Italy)
  • Orchis × bergonii Nanteuil (1887) (Orchis anthropophora × Orchis simia) (Western Mediterranean)
  • Orchis × beyrichii (Rchb.f.) A.Kern. (1865) (Orchis militaris × Orchis simia) (Europe to Turkey)
  • Orchis × bivonae Tod. (1840)(Orchis anthropophora × Orchis italica) (Southern Europe)
  • Orchis × blidana B.Baumann & H.Baumann (1980) (Orchis laeta × Orchis mascula subsp. olbiensis) (NW Africa)
  • Orchis × calliantha Renz & Taubenheim 1983 (Orchis punctulata × Orchis simia) (Turkey)
  • Orchis × clandestina Hautz. (1978) (Orchis patens × Orchis provincialis) (NW Italy)
  • Orchis × colemanii Cortesi 1907 (Orchis mascula × Orchis provincialis subsp. pauciflora) (Italy)
  • Orchis × fitzii Hautz. (1980 publ. 1983) (Orchis anatolica × Orchis mascula) (Turkey)
  • Orchis × golestanica Renz (1978) (Orchis adenocheilae × Orchis simia) (Iran)
  • Orchis × hybrida (Lindl.) Boenn. ex Rchb. (1830) (Orchis militaris × Orchis purpurea) (Europe)
  • Orchis × klopfensteiniae P.Delforge (1985) (Orchis pallens × Orchis spitzelii) (SW Europe)
  • Orchis × ligustica Ruppert. (1933) (Orchis mascula × Orchis patens) (Mediterranean)
  • Orchis × loreziana Brügger (1874) (Orchis mascula × Orchis pallens) (Europe)
    • Orchis × loreziana nothosubsp. kisslingii (Beck) Potucek (1976) (Orchis mascula subsp. speciosa × Orchis pallens) (Eastern Europe)
    • Orchis × loreziana nothosubsp. loreziana (Orchis mascula × Orchis pallens) (Central Europe)
  • Orchis × macra Lindl. (1835) (Orchis anthropophora × Orchis purpurea) (Europe)
  • Orchis × permixta Soó (1932) (Orchis mascula subsp. signifera × Orchis pallens × Orchis provincialis) (Crimea)
  • Orchis × petterssonii G.Keller ex Pett. (1947) (Orchis mascula × Orchis spitzelii) (Europe, NW Africa)
  • Orchis × plessidiaca Renz (1928) (Orchis pallens × Orchis provincialis) (SE Europe to Krim)
  • Orchis × pseudoanatolica H.Fleischm. (1914) (Orchis provincialis subsp. pauciflora × Orchis quadripunctata) (SE Europe)
    • Orchis × pseudoanatolica nothosubsp. buelii (Wildh.) ined. (Orchis provincialis × Orchis quadripunctata) (SE Europe)
    • Orchis × pseudoanatolica nothosubsp. pseudoanatolica (Orchis provincialis subsp. pauciflora × Orchis quadripunctata) (SE Europe)
  • Orchis × razzarae Galesi (2005) (Orchis lactea Poir. × Orchis italica Poir.) (Sicilia)
  • Orchis × sardoa (Scrugli & M.P.Grasso) Scrugli, A.Musacchio, D'Emerico, Pellegrino & Cozzolino (2004, publ. 2005)
  • Orchis × spuria Rchb.f. (1849) (Orchis anthropophora × Orchis militaris) (Europe)
  • Orchis × subpatens E.G.Camus in E.G.Camus & A.A.Camus (1928) (Orchis patens × Orchis provincialis) (S. Europe)
  • Orchis × tingitania Hautz. (1976) (Orchis provincialis × Orchis spitzelii) (Western Mediterranean)
  • Orchis × tochniana Kreutz & Scraton (2002) (Orchis italica × Orchis punctulata) (Cyprus)
  • Orchis × wulffiana Soó (1932) (Orchis punctulata × Orchis purpurea) (Crimea to caucasus)

Intergeneric hybrids

  • Orchiophrys (Ophrys x Orchis)
  • Orchiserapias (Orchis x Serapias)




External links

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