|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Philadelphus (named for the ancient Egyptian king, Ptolemy Philadelphus, who reigned from 285 to 247 B.C.). Saxifragaceae. Syringa. Mock Orange. Popular ornamental deciduous or rarely half-evergreen shrubs.
Leaves opposite, entire to variously toothed, occasionally slightly revolute, and almost invariably ciliate: fls. often very fragrant, mostly white, a few creamy or with purple or rosy spots at or near the base of the petals, in racemes, or solitary or in cymose groups of 1-6; calyx-lobes, petals, and styles usually 4; stamens numerous: fr. a dehiscent commonly 2-parted 4- valved many-seeded caps.—About 30-35 species have been described. The genus is essentially Asiatic and American. P. coronarius is certainly a native of Armenia and the Caucasus, and several varieties of it extend the range to Japan, and it is wild in Eu., but whether or where it is native is uncertain, because it has undoubtedly sometimes escaped from cult. The genus has 3 roughly defined areas of distribution,—N. Asia and Japan, W. Amer. from Brit. Col. to Calif. S. Atlantic States, and Mex. It has no well-marked characters which may be used to separate the species, which therefore often resemble each other closely and are sometimes connected by intermediate forms. The latest treatment of the genus is in Schneider's Illustriertes Handbuch der Laubholzkunde, vol. 1, p. 362 (1905). On account of the great confusion of names in the genus, rather more synonymy than usual is given, but the selection is nevertheless of the names more likely to be met with or to cause confusion. The complete synonymy is far larger.
Syringa, the common name of Philadelphus, is identical with the generic name of the lilac. This arises from the use of Syringa by the old herbalists. Thus, in 1597, John Gerarde in his "Herball" gives Syringa alba, white pipe, S. caerulea, blue pipe, and S. arabica, Arabian pipe, the first being Philadelphus coronarius, the second Syringa vulgaris (lilac), and the third Jas- minum Sambac. Tournefort, in 1700, selected Syringa for the first, but Linnaeus, whom we follow, chose to use it for the second. However, Tournefort's usage prevailed in English speech, while the Germans call Philadelphus either Pfeifenstrauch (meaning pipe-shrub, like the herbalists' "pipe," above) or Jasmin, perpetuating the third element in the original heterogeneous syringa. The French also use syringa as the common name of Philadelphus, but in the form seringat.
Philadelphus generally blossoms in June; in fact, it is remarkable for the uniformity of the blossoming period, both in cultivation and in its native haunts, throughout the world. Most of the members of the genus are hardy North, except P. Coulteri, P. mexicanus. and the other Mexican species. They are well adapted to shrubberies and mostly do not grow very high, the tallest being P. pubescens, attaining a height of about 20 feet; others, as P. coronarius, P. Zeyheri, and P. inodorus, grow nearly as high, while P. microphyllus hardly exceeds 3 feet. If pruning is needed it should be done after flowering, since the flowers appear on the wood formed the previous year. CH
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Usually propagation is by hardwood cuttings, or by suckers and greenwood cuttings under glass; also by layers and by seeds, but when several species are growing together they are likely to hybridize.CH
Pests and diseases
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- Philadelphus argenteus - Silver Mock-orange (California, Baja California)
- Philadelphus argyrocalyx - Silver-Cup Mock-orange (New Mexico)
- Philadelphus brachybotrys - Mock-orange (southeast China)
- Philadelphus californicus - California Mock-orange (California)
- Philadelphus caucasicus - Caucasus Mock-orange (Caucasus)
- Philadelphus confusus - Piper's Mock-orange (California, Washington)
- Philadelphus cordifolius - Heartleaf Mock-orange (California)
- Philadelphus coronarius - Sweet Mock-orange (southeast Europe)
- Philadelphus coulteri - Coulter's Mock-orange (northwest Mexico)
- Philadelphus crinitus - Hairy or Trans-pecos Mock-orange (west Texas)
- Philadelphus delavayi - Delavay's Mock-orange (southwest China)
- Philadelphus ernestii - Canyon Mock-orange (southwest U.S.)
- Philadelphus floridus - Florida Mock-orange (Florida, Georgia)
- Philadelphus gattingeri - Gattinger's Mock-orange (Tennessee)
- Philadelphus hirsutus - Streambank Mock-orange (southeast US)
- Philadelphus hitchcockianus - Hitchcock Mock-orange (Texas, New Mexico)
- Philadelphus incanus - Mock-orange (Hubei, Shaanxi)
- Philadelphus inodorus - Scentless Mock-orange (US)
- Philadelphus insignis - Summer Mock-orange (California, Oregon)
- Philadelphus intectus - Mock-orange (southeast US)
- Philadelphus kansuensis - Evergreen Mock-orange (northwest China)
- Philadelphus karwinskyanus - Evergreen Mock-orange (Mexico)
- Philadelphus laxiflorus - Mock-orange (Gansu, Hubei, Shaanxi)
- Philadelphus lewisii - Lewis's Mock-orange (western North America)
- Philadelphus maculatus - Spotted Mock-orange (Arizona)
- Philadelphus madrensis - Desert Mountain Mock-orange (southwest US)
- Philadelphus mearnsii - Mearns' Mock-orange (Texas, New Mexico)
- Philadelphus mexicanus - Mexican Mock-orange (Mexico, Guatemala)
- Philadelphus microphyllus - Littleleaf Mock-orange (southwest US)
- Philadelphus occidentalis - Western Mock-orange (western North America)
- Philadelphus oreganus - Oregon Mock-orange (Oregon)
- Philadelphus palmeri - Palmer's Mock-orange (southwest US)
- Philadelphus pekinensis - Beijing Mock-orange (northern China)
- Philadelphus pubescens - Hoary Mock-orange (southeast US)
- Philadelphus pumilus - Dwarf Mock-orange (California)
- Philadelphus purpurascens - Mock-orange (southwest China)
- Philadelphus satsumanus - Downy Japanese Mock-orange (Japan)
- Philadelphus satsumi - Japanese Mock-orange (Japan)
- Philadelphus schrenkii - Schrenk's Mock-orange (northeast China, Korea, southeast Russia)
- Philadelphus sericanthus - Mock-orange (Sichuan, Hubei)
- Philadelphus serpyllifolius - Littleleaf or Thymeleaf Mock-orange (southern US, Mexico)
- Philadelphus sharpianus - Sharp's Mock-orange (Tennessee, Missouri)
- Philadelphus subcanus - Mock-orange (southwest China)
- Philadelphus tenuifolius - Slender-leaf Mock-orange (Korea, southeast Russia)
- Philadelphus texensis - Texas Mock-orange (Texas)
- Philadelphus tomentosus - Fuzzy Mock-orange (Himalaya)
- Philadelphus trichothecus - Columbian Mock-orange (British Columbia, northwest US)
- Philadelphus triflorus - Himalayan Mock-orange (Himalaya)
- Philadelphus wootonii - Wooton's Mock-orange (New Mexico)
- Philadelphus zelleri - Zeller's Mock-orange (Washington)
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
For a few vernacular names, sometimes popularly written with-out a preceding specific name, see P. Lemoinei, of which they are really varieties.
acuminatus, 6. guatemalensis, 24. Perle Blanche, 16.
Billiardii, 18. hirsutus, 23. phantasia, 11.
californicus, 5. incanus, 8. primuLaeflorus, 6.
columbianus, 5. inodorus, 21, 23. pubesccns, 18, 22.
Conquete, 13. insignis, 18. purpureo-maculatus,
cordifolicus, 5. intectus, 18. 11.
coronarius, 3,4, 6,21. Kochianus, 4. Rehderianus, 7.
Coulteri, 26. latifolius, 18. Rosace, 15.
dianthiflorus, 6. laxus, 21, 22. rosaeflorus, 6.
erectus, 10. Lemoinei, 10. salicifolius, 6.
Etoile Rose, 12. Lewisii, 5. satsumanus, 6.
Falconeri, 17. Magdalenae', 20. satsumi, 6.
fimbriatus, 10. mexicanus, 24, 20. sempervirens, 24.
flore-pleno, 6. microphyllus, 25. sericanthus, 7.
floribundus, 9. multiflorus plenus, 6. speciosissimus, 6.
foliis argenteo-mar- nanus, 6. speciosus, 22.
ginatis, 6. nepalensis,1,6. tomentosus, 6.
foliis aureis, 6. nivalis, 6. trinervius, 23.
Gordonianus, 5, 18. Nuee Blanche, 14. verrucosus, 9, 19.
gracilis, 23. pallidus, 6. Voie Lactee, 2.
grandiflorus, 6, 9, 18, pekinensis, 3. yokohama, 6.
21, 22. pendulifolius, 19. Zeyheri, 4, 6.
P.argenteus, Rydb. Low straggling shrub, with handsome silvery calyx, and lvs. silvery beneath. Fort Huachuca, Aris. Rare plant for southern roekeriea or borders. Because of rarity, only one plant, or preferably seeds, should be got, to prevent extermination.—P. brachybotrys, Koehne (P. pekinensis var. brachy- botrys, Koehne). Of uncertain standing, allied to P. coronarius. The following variety is of greater merit. Var. purpurascens, Koehne. With purple calyx and pedicels. B.M. 8324 (as P. De-lavayi).—P. chinensis (syn. P. coronarius var. acuminatus).—P. coronA- rius var. nikoensis. A. H. Moore (P. satsumanus var. nikoensis, Rehd.). Related to var. acuminatus, differing in greater pubescence,especially on the veins of lower lf.-surfaces.—P. coronarius var. semiplenus. Uncertain. probably syn. P. coronarius flore-pleno.—P. coronarius var. tenuifolius. Maxim. A variety differing but slightly from the type, of no advantage to horticulture.—-P. Delavayi, L. Henry. Chinese, with fragrant fls., and generally more or less fringed petals, often marked with purple on the back. R.H. 1903, p. 13. Var. melanocalyx, Hort.. is a variety with dark purple calyx. —P. Dresden. Hybrid of-P. Lemoinei erectus and P. pubescens. Desirable.—P. floridus. Beadle. Desirable shrub, erect, to 6 1/2 ft.; with attractive large, white fls., and calyx appresscd silky. Suitable for S.E., and perhaps hardy N., like other southern species of this genus.—P. Godohokeri. Name said to stand for P. hirsutus and P. laxus in gardens.—P. grandiflorus aureus. Not possible to determine, because of confusion existing in regard to name grandi-florus.—P. grandiflorus laxus flore-pleno. See note on preceding name.—P. inodorus sanguineus. Unknown. Name P. inodorus also variously applied.—P. Lemoinei. Of many varieties recently produced, but not yet intro. into American trade, the following seem worthy of mention. (See also derivatives of P. phantasia, originally treated as varieties of P. Lemoinei, under tne former name.) Albare. Branches more graceful than in the variety Virginal: lvs. smaller: fls. full double as in that variety. Banniere. Branches arched with the weight of the fls., which are about 1 1/4in. across. Dame Blanche. Fls. creamy white, very fragrant; petals fringed. Norma. Profusely flowering: fls. large, white. Ophelia. Gracefully arching branches: fls. white, fragrant.—P. magnificus, Rehd. Garden hybrid of P. inodorus and P. pubescens. —P. maximus, Rehd. Garden hybrid of uncertain origin; resembling P. coronarius (perhaps hybrid of that with P. pubescens), but with the lvs. of young succulent shoots and suckers very large, hairy beneath. Not of horticultural merit.—P. nepalensis varigatus. Name of unknown application.—P. phantasia. The following varieties not yet in the American trade are of interest: Oeil de Pourpre. Fls. fragrant; petals with black-purple spot at base. Romeo. Profusely flowering: fls. creamy white, with a purple blotch. Sirene. Fls. large, fragrant, white, with a very slight suggestion of rose in the lower corners of the petals. Surprise. Fls. fragrant; petals spotted carmine-purple. Siblle. Shrub with long curved branches. of pretty habit; fls. white, slightly fringed; petals pale pink spotted toward base.—P. purpurascens, Rehd. (syn. P. brachybotrys var. purpurascens).—P. Schrenkii, Rupr. Closely related to P. coronarius. Upright: lvs. large and thin: fls. scentless, smaller; style appressed pubescent at base. Var. Jackii. Of uncertain hybrid parentage and doubtful merit.—P. sempervirens, Hort., offered in Calif., is P. mexicanus, described in No. 24; the name appears to have no botanical standing.—P. serpyllifoliue. Gray. Closely related to P. microphyllus, than which it is more straggling, and less attractive, although perhaps good for rockeries. The only species with leathery revolute lvs.—P. splendens. Supposed garden hybrid, said to be worthy of cult.—P. stenopetalus, Carr. This is a species whose description in important particulars suggests P. Falconeri, for which it may prove to be an older name.—P. tenuifolius, Rupr. (syn. * P. coronarius var. tenuifolius, Maxim). Not of horticultural merit. —P. umbellatus, Koehne. Probably hybrid of P. coronarius and P. inodorus: fls. in broad 2-5-fld. panicles, compound of long- pedunclcd cymes. Parentage unknown.—P. venuitus, Koehne. Closely related to P. coronarius var. tomentosus. Perhaps distinct.—P. Wilsonii, Koehne. New Chinese species of the group of P. incanus. Value unknown.
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- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963
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