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[[{{{domain}}}]] > [[{{{superregnum}}}]] > Plantae > [[{{{subregnum}}}]] > [[{{{superdivisio}}}]] > [[{{{superphylum}}}]] > [[]] > [[{{{phylum}}}]] > [[{{{subdivisio}}}]] > [[{{{subphylum}}}]] > [[{{{infraphylum}}}]] > [[{{{microphylum}}}]] > [[{{{nanophylum}}}]] > [[{{{superclassis}}}]] > [[]] > [[{{{subclassis}}}]] > [[{{{infraclassis}}}]] > [[{{{superordo}}}]] > [[]] > [[{{{subordo}}}]] > [[{{{infraordo}}}]] > [[{{{superfamilia}}}]] > [[]] > [[{{{subfamilia}}}]] > [[{{{supertribus}}}]] > [[{{{tribus}}}]] > [[{{{subtribus}}}]] > [[]] {{{subgenus}}} {{{sectio}}} {{{series}}} var.

Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

Polygonum (Greek for many-jointed). Including Persicaria, Bistorta, Tovara. Polygonaceae. Jointweed. Knotweed. Smartweed. Erect or twining plants, grown for ornament, the flowers and foliage often attractive.

Mostly herbs, annual or perennial, with small fls. on jointed pedicels in racemes, spikes or heads (sometimes solitary) : lvs. alternate, simple, jointed to an ocrea or sheath which clasps or surrounds the st. and may at length split and become indistinct: fls. apetalous; calyx gamosepalous, 4-6-parted; stamens 3-9, sometimes exserted; ovary 1-loculed, with 2-3-parted style or stigma (latter capitate), ripening into a triangular or lenticular achene.—The species are perhaps 200 (if the genus is held to include Persicaria), of very wide distribution from arctic to tropical countries, and they are of widely différent habit, from small annuals, slender twiners,' to subshrubs, and ranging in habitat from dry open lands to deep woods and watery swamps. The calyx is corolla-like, often large enough and with sufficient color to render the infl. showy. Polygonum is closely allied to Rumex, the docks, and also to Fagopyrurn, the buckwheats. Rumex differs in uniformly having a 6-parted calyx, some of the lobes often bearing a grain-like tubercle on the back, the stigmas tufted. Fagopyrum differs in having an achene surpassing the calyx and in details of the embryo. Most polygonums are weedy plants, and only a very small proportion are of merit for cult. One of the commonest species is the doorweed (Fig. 3102), Polygonum aviculare. It is a decumbent wiry small-lvd. annual or perennial, growing along walks and in other hard dry soil,where it makes a sod-like mat. The axillary fls. are very small, seldom seen by others than botanists. Other polygonums are the common smartweeds of swales and damp grounds. For monograph of native and intro. species, see Small, "Monograph of the North American species of the genus Polygonum," in Mem. Dept. Bot. Columbia College, 1895.

Most of the cultivated polygonums are hardy border plants, requiring no special skill or care. They are propagated by seed and division, chiefly the latter. The riuzomatous species, as those of the East Asian region, produce readily divisible plante. Some of the cultivated kinds are annual, as P. orientale, and this species is the only one that is known as a familiar flower-garden plant, although it is now little grown and the seed is difficult to secure in the trade. P..sachalinense is a robust coarse plant of some value where screening foliage is desired and to occupy intractable ground; it was once extravagantly advertised as a forage plant. P. baldschuanicum is an attractive and worthy climber, hardy in the northern states. P. Sieboldii is one of the best of the species for the back or bold border and is useful for forming single clumps when strong herbaceous foliage effects are desired. The other species are employed mostly in wild gardening or for similar effects. The amphibious kinds make interesting subjects for bog- gardens. The pink or red often curved spikes of the Persicaria group are sometimes very ornamental. The Asian set, from elevations in the Himalayan region and eastward to China and Japan, comprises very interesting plants for rock-gardens and herbaries. The polygonums provide good autumn-blooming plante. CH

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Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture


affine. 12. cymosum, 15; also polycephalum, 15. amphibium. 7. auppl. list. polystachyum, 16. amplexicaule, 11. elegans, 6. Posumbu, 14. arenarium, 6. filiforme, 9. pumilum, 4. Aubertii, 3. Hartwrightii, 7. aachalinense, 21. baldschuanicum, 2. lanígerum, 8. sieboldii, 19. Bistorta, 10. lichiangense, 17. Spaethii, 22. Brunonis. 12. muhlenbergii, 11. specioeum, 11. campanulatum, 18. multiflorum, 10 and spectabile, 19. chinense, 15. suppl. list. superbum, 10. cilinode, 1. officinalis, 10. vaccinifolium, 13. compactum, 10. orientale, 4. variegatum, 4, 9. corymbosum, 15. oxyphyllum, 10. Weynchii, 20. cuspidatum, 19. Persicaria, 5. Zuccarinii, 19.

P. crispulum, Sims (Atraphaxis buxifolia).—P. cymosum, Trev. (Fagopyrum cymosum, Meissn. ). Puberulous perennial: lvs, triangular: fls. white, secund on long recurved branchee of cymes. Himalaya to China.—P. molle, Don. Shrubby perennial, allied to P. polystachyum, the branches stout, terete and villous: lvs. elliptic-lanceolate, pubescent or tomentose beneath: fls. white, in large thyrse-like tomentose terminal panicles. Himalaya.—P. multiflorum, Thunb. Tuberous-rooted climber, with reddish sts.: lvs. cordate-ovate, acute, shining: fls. small and whitish, in spreading panicles. China and Japan.—P. platycaulon, Hort. (Muehlen- beckia platyclada).—P. scandens, Hort., as once described, is a twiner, with firm lvs., cordate at base, dark green above and claret- colored beneath. —P. sericeum. Pall. Stout perennial, 4 ft., free-branching, with spirea-like panicles in July and Aug. of white fls.: densely pubescent: lvs. subsessile, oval-oblong, lanceolate, attenuate at base: fls. in short simple racemes terminal or in upper axils. Siberia.—P. sphaerostachyum, Meissn. Allied to P. affine, from which it differs in the "dense broad cylindric or globose spike of blood-red pendulous fls.": tufted perennial, suitable for small rock-gardens. Himalaya. CH

The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.


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