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Scrophularia nodosa8.jpg
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[[{{{domain}}}]] > [[{{{superregnum}}}]] > Plantae > [[{{{subregnum}}}]] > [[{{{superdivisio}}}]] > [[{{{superphylum}}}]] > [[]] > [[{{{phylum}}}]] > [[{{{subdivisio}}}]] > [[{{{subphylum}}}]] > [[{{{infraphylum}}}]] > [[{{{microphylum}}}]] > [[{{{nanophylum}}}]] > [[{{{superclassis}}}]] > [[]] > [[{{{subclassis}}}]] > [[{{{infraclassis}}}]] > [[{{{superordo}}}]] > [[]] > [[{{{subordo}}}]] > [[{{{infraordo}}}]] > [[{{{superfamilia}}}]] > [[]] > [[{{{subfamilia}}}]] > [[{{{supertribus}}}]] > [[{{{tribus}}}]] > [[{{{subtribus}}}]] > [[{{{genus}}}]] {{{subgenus}}} {{{sectio}}} {{{series}}} {{{species}}} {{{subspecies}}} var. {{{cultivar}}}

Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family, is a family of flowering plants. The plants are annual or perennial herbs with flowers with bilateral (zygomorphic) or rarely radial (actinomorphic) symmetry. Members of the Scrophulariaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution, with the majority found in temperate areas, including tropical mountains. The family name is based on the name of the included genus Scrophularia L..

In the past it was treated as including about 275 genera and over 5,000 species, but its circumscription has been radically altered since numerous molecular phylogenies have shown the traditional broad circumscription to be grossly polyphyletic. Many genera have recently been transferred to other families within the Lamiales, notably Plantaginaceae and Orobanchaceae but also several new families [1][2]. Several families of the Lamiales have had their circumscriptions enlarged to accommodate genera transferred from Scrophulariacae sensu lato.

Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

Scrophulariaceae (from the genus Scrophularia, a reputed remedy for scrofula). Figwort Family. Fig. 52. Herbs, shrubs, or small trees: leaves alternate, opposite or whorled: flowers bisexual, regular or commonly irregular, often bilabiate, in which case the throat is often closed by a palate; calyx 5-cleft; corolla 5-lobed, gamopetalous, hypogynous, rarely spurred at the base, imbricated; fertile stamens rarely 5, usually 4 and didynamous, rarely 2; sterile often present as staminodia; epipetalous; hypogynous disk annular or unilateral; ovary superior, 2-celled; ovules many; style 1; stigmas 1-2: fruit generally a capsule, rarely a berry.

Scrophulariaceae is a family of 179 genera and about 2,500 species, distributed very generally over the whole earth. A few are aquatic and have finely divided leaves. Some are half-parasites on the roots of other plants. A few are total parasites without chlorophyll. The largest genera are Verbascum containing 160 species, Calceolaria with 134 species, Veronica with 200 species, and Pedicularis with 250 species. The family is related to the Solanaceae, to the Orobanchaceae and Gesneriaceae. The non-plicate imbricated usually irregular corolla, reduced number of stamens, and 2-celled, many-ovuled ovary, are distinctive characters.

The economic uses of the Scrophulariaceae are medicinal and ornamental. Veronica officinalis has been used as a tonic and an astringent. Veronica Beccabunga has been used for scurvy. Scrophularia nodosa was a remedy for fevers. Antirrhinum was used as a diuretic. Euphrasia officinalis was used in ophthalmia, and hence the name "eye-bright." Gratiola officinalis (poor man's herb) is a violent purgative. Digitalis purpurea is the most valuable medicinal plant in the family. It is poisonous, and a well-known diuretic and sedative-narcotic. The tropical Scoparia dulcis is a febrifuge. Veronica virginica (Culver's root), Verbascum Thapsus, Linaria vulgaris, and Chelone glabra have also been used in medicine. The snapdragon and foxglove are well-known garden plants of this family.

Because of the showy flowers, 30 to 40 genera are in cultivation in N. America for ornamental purposes. Among these are: Antirrhinum (Snapdragon), garden and greenhouse; Calceolaria, greenhouse plants, mostly from South America; Castilleia (Painted Cup), garden plants; Chelone (Turtlehead), hardy garden plants; Collinsia, garden annuals; Digitalis (Foxglove), hardy garden plants; Erinus, hardy; Gerardia, hardy; Gratiola, hardy; Halleria (African Honeysuckle), cultivated in the southern borders; Linaria (Butter-and-Eggs, Kenilworth Ivy, Mother-of-Thousands, Toad-flax), hardy and greenhouse; Mimulus (Monkey Flower, Musk Plant), garden annuals or hardy; Paulownia, semi-hardy tree; Pedicularis (Lousewort, Wood Betony), hardy; Pentstemon (Beard Tongue, Pentstemon), hardy; Phygelius (Cape Fuchsia), mostly greenhouse; Rhodochiton (Purple Bells), vine, garden annual; Russelia, greenhouse; Scrophularia (Figwort), hardy; Tetranema (Mexican Foxglove), greenhouse; Torenia, garden; Verbascum (Mullein), hardy; Veronica (Speedwell, Culver's Root, Fluellen, Ground Hele, Angel's Eyes, Bird's Eyes), garden, mostly hardy or annual.


The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.


Tribe Aptosimeae

Tribe Buddlejeae

Tribe Hemimerideae

Tribe Leucophylleae

Tribe Limoselleae

Tribe Myoporeae

Tribe Scrophularieae

Tribe Teedieae

Not placed in a tribe

Excluded genera

The following genera, traditionally included in the Scrophulariaceae, have been transferred to other families as indicated:


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