|Nicotiana subsp. var.||Tobacco|
Nicotiana (pronounced /ˌnɪkɵʃiˈeɪnə/) is a genus of herbs and shrubs of the nightshade family (Solanaceae) indigenous to North and South America, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific. Various Nicotiana species, commonly referred to as tobacco plants, are cultivated and grown to produce tobacco. Of all Nicotiana species, Cultivated Tobacco (N. tabacum) is the most widely planted and is grown worldwide for production of tobacco leaf for cigarettes. The genus is named in honor of Jean Nicot, who in 1561 was the first to present tobacco to the French royal court.
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Nicotiana (named for Jean Nicot, 1530-1600, of Nismes in Languedoc, consul from the King of France to Lisbon, Portugal, in 1560, who obtained tobacco from a merchant of Flanders, Belgium, which he presented to the court of Portugal and also, on his return to France, to the Queen Catherine de Medici). Solanaceae. Herbaceous annuals, perennials or rarely shrubby or arborescent, comprising several stately plants, valued for their rapid growth and large foliage; other species produce showy flowers, and are popular flower-garden subjects; one is the tobacco.
Herbs, mostly viscid-pubescent, of strong odor, possessing narcotic poisonous properties: Lvs. alternate, never compound, entire or undulate, mostly sessile or nearly so by a tapering base: fls. hermaphrodite, often regular, long-tubular, mostly opening at night and most fragrant then, in terminal racemes, panicles or thyrses; calyx usually persistent, inclosing the fr., tubular-campanulate or ovoid, 5-parted; corolla salverform, funnelform, or tubular-swollen; limb plicate in the bud, 5-lobed; stamens 5, inserted on the tube, unequal or nearly equal, included; filaments straight, anthers longitudinally dehiscent, ovate or oblong; ovary 2-celled, or 4-celled in one species; ovules many; placenta axillary; style simple; stigma capitate: fr. a 2-4-celled caps., but usually splitting into 4 to several valves; seeds numerous, minute, oblong, somewhat kidney-form, roughened or pitted.—A genus of about 45 species and 54 subspecies, mostly of Trop. Amer., with a few from N. and S. Amer. and 1 from Austral.
Latest publications: Comes, "Monographie du genre Nicotiana." 1899; Splendore, "Sinossi descrittiva ed iconographia dei semi del genrere Nicotiana," 1906; Setchell. "Studies in Nicotiana," 1912; "Tobacco- culture, United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin No. 571, 1914.
Nicotianas are easily cultivated, but in northern latitudes require a hot exposure and a deep rich loose loamy soil, rich in lime and potash, both of which may be supplied from wood-ashes. As the seeds grow slowly in cool weather, they should be started hi early spring under glass and kept moist and warm. For tobacco, in districts farther north, hotbeds will secure rapid growth, but in other localities coldframes with a southern exposure should be used. The soil should be a loose loam of high fertility, and thoroughly drained. In the fall, forty pounds of lime and two hundred pounds of stable-manure to 100 square feet of bed should be turned under. In the spring, about two weeks before sowing the seed, twenty pounds of cottonseed-meal or castor pomace, one pound of acid phosphate, and one-half pound of carbonate or sulfate of potash to 100 square feet of bed-area should be thoroughly spaded into the soil to a depth of 4 or 5 inches, and the bed-surface finely pulverized. If possible, the soil should then be sterilized with steam to prevent fungous diseases and the growth of weed seeds. The seed should be sown at the rate of an even tea- spoonful of dry seed to 100 square feet of bed. In order to secure an even distribution of the seed, it is thoroughly mixed into two quarts of land-plaster, finely sifted wood-ashes or bone-meal. Three sowings should be made to insure an even distribution over the bed, the light color of the filler material serving to indicate the evenness of the distribution. The seed must be covered by going over the bed with a roller, or packing with a plank. When young, nicotianas will stand considerable frost, but become more sensitive with age. They are well adapted to pot or tub culture and are fine for summer porch-decoration. N. alata, best known in the trade as N. affinis, and N. Sanderae are the most popular flower-garden plants. Of the larger species for subtropical bedding, N. glauca, N. tomentosa, and N. Tabacum are best.
N. Bigelovii, Wats., with sts. 1-2 ft. tall, fls. white 1-2 in. long, is of interest as being the possible origin of N. quadrivalvis and N. multivalvis. Calif. — N. trigonophylla, Dunal, has sts. 15 in. tall: Lvs. triangular, sessile, somewhat clasping. 2-2¼ in. long, ½-¾ in. wide: corolla yellowish green, ½-⅝ in. long: viscous pubescent throughout. Utah to Mex. and Calif.
Nicotiana germination is usually 2–5 days in 80 F C .
Pests and diseases
- Nicotiana acuminata (Graham) Hook., 1829 – Manyflower Tobacco
- Nicotiana africana Merxm., 1975
- Nicotiana alata Link & Otto, 1828 – Winged Tobacco, Jasmine Tobacco, Tanbaku (Persian)
- Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex S.Watson, 1871 – Coyote Tobacco
- Nicotiana benthamiana Domin, 1929
- Nicotiana bigelovii (Torr.) S.Watson, 1871
- Nicotiana clevelandii A.Gray, 1878 – Cleveland's Tobacco
- Nicotiana debneyi Domin, 1929
- Nicotiana × diglutaTemplate:Verify source
- Nicotiana excelsior – Tobacco
- Nicotiana exigua Wheeler, 1935
- Nicotiana forgetiana – Tobacco
- Nicotiana glauca Graham, 1828 – Tree Tobacco, Brazilian Tree Tobacco, Shrub Tobacco, Mustard Tree
- Nicotiana glutinosa – Tobacco
- Nicotiana kawakamii Y.Ohashi, 1985
- Nicotiana knightiana Goodspeed, 1938
- Nicotiana langsdorffii – Langsdorff's tobacco
- Nicotiana longiflora Cav., 1802 – Longflower Tobacco
- Nicotiana obtusifolia M.Martens & Galeotti, 1845 (N. trigonophylla) – Desert Tobacco, Punche, "Tabaquillo"
- Nicotiana otophora Griseb., 1879
- Nicotiana paniculata – Tobacco
- Nicotiana persica Lindl., 1833
- Nicotiana plumbagifolia Viv., 1802 – Tex-Mex Tobacco
- Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh, 1814 – Indian Tobacco
- Nicotiana repanda Willd. ex Lehm., 1818 – Fiddleleaf Tobacco, Wild Tobacco
- Nicotiana rustica L., 1753 – Aztec Tobacco, Mapacho
- Nicotiana × sanderae – Sander's Tobacco
- Nicotiana stocktonii Brandegee, 1899
- Nicotiana suaveolens – Australian Tobacco
- Nicotiana sylvestris – South American Tobacco, Woodland Tobacco
- Nicotiana tabacum – Cultivated Tobacco, Common Tobacco (a cultivated hybrid - properly Nicotiana × tabacum)
- Nicotiana tomentosa – Tobacco
- Nicotiana tomentosiformis Goodsp., 1933
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963
- w:Nicotiana. Some of the material on this page may be from Wikipedia, under the Creative Commons license.
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