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 Acer subsp. var.  Maple
Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum) leaves
Habit: tree
Height: to
Width: to
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Lifespan: perennial
Exposure: sun
Features: deciduous
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USDA Zones: to
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Flower features:
Aceraceae > Acer var. ,

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Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture
Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) leaves in fall
Red Maple (Acer rubrum) flowers
Acer palmatum has over 1,000 cultivars. This cultivar is A. palmatum 'Sango kaku', sometimes called "coralbark maple".
Autumn color in the Hodaka Mountains of Japan

Acer (classical Latin name). Aceraceae. Maple. Native and foreign trees cultivated chiefly for shade and for the ornamental foliage.

Trees, rarely shrubs: lvs. opposite, petioled, simple and mostly palmately lobed, or 3-5 foliolate, deciduous, rarely evergreen: fls. small, polygamous or dioecious, in racemes, panicles or corymbs; petals and sepals 5, rarely 4, rarely sepals connate and petals wanting; disk usually annular, conspicuous, rarely lobed or wanting; stamens 4-10, mostly 8; styles 2, usually more or less connate: fr. consisting of 2 long-winged, compressed nutlets (samaras), each containing 1 seed.—About 110 species in N. Amer., Asia, especially Cent, and E. Asia, Europe and N. Afr. Monogr. by Pax in Engler, Pflanzenreich IV, fam. 163 (1903), quoted below as Pax; see, also, Rehder, The Maples of E. Continental Asia, in Sargent, Trees and Shrubs, 1:175 (1905), and Koidzumi, Revisio Aceracearum Japonicarum in Jour. College of Science, Tokyo, 32, Art. 1 (1911), both with many plates. Monogr. of the garden forms by Graf Schwerin in Gt. 1893; see also G.C. II. 16:75.

The maples are hardy ornamental trees or shrubs, with handsome large foliage which, in some species, shows a remarkable tendency to vary in shape and coloring. Numerous garden forms are in cultivation. Though the flowers are small, they are quite attractive in the early-flowering species as in A. rubrum and A. saccharum, since they appear in great profusion; in some species the young fruits assume a bright red color, particularly in A. tataricum, A. ginnala, A. pseudoplatanus var. erythrocarpum, and A. rubrum. The maples are among our most ornamental and valuable trees for park and street planting. Nearly all assume a splendid color in autumn, especially the species of North America and Eastern Asia, which surpass by far the European maples. Many species are valuable timber trees, and some American species, especially A. saccharum, produce sugar. For purposes of shade, the common sugar maple is best and most popular. The Norway maple makes a very dense and round head, and is excellent for lawns, put it is too low-headed for the streets. A. pictum is similar, but smaller in every part. The silver maple, A. saccharinum and its vars., is also popular where quick-growing trees are desired. The Japanese maples of the Palmata section are among the most striking and showy exotic small trees, and are adapted for fine grounds and for growing in pots.

The maples are not particular as to soil; some species, as A. monspessulanum and A. campestre, prefer drier situations, while A. saccharinum and A. rubrum prefer moist situations, the latter growing well even in swampy soil. Most of the species are hardy in the northern and middle states; among the hardiest are A. Negundo, A. saccharum (Figs. 89, 90), A. saccharinum, A. rubrum, A. nigrum, A. pennsylvanicum, A. spicatum, A. platanoides, A. tataricum.CH

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Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

Propagation is by seeds, which soon lose their germinating power and must be sown soon after maturity or stratified and sown in spring; A. saccharum and A. Negundo keep their germinating power somewhat longer. The early-ripening species, like A. saccharinum and A. rubrum, muat be sown as soon as they are ripe and they will germinate the same year. A. campestre, A. monspessulanum and other species of this group do not usually germinate until the second year. The varieties and rare species may be budded in summer on the typical forms or on species of the same group; kinds belonging to different groups cannot, as a rule, be grafted on each other; e.g., varieties of A. platanoides will not grow on A. pseudoplatanus and vice versa, but A. insigne will grow on A. pseudoplatanus, as they belong to the same group. Some shrubby species, as A. palmatum, also A. cissifolium, A. ginnala var. Semenowi, and A. laetum var. rubrum, may be propagated by layers or half-ripened greenwood cuttings in summer, or, still better, by cuttings taken from forced plants in early spring in the greenhouse. A. Negundo grows also from hardwood cuttings. Fancy maples are readily winter-grafted by the veneer method, the stocks being grown in pots. The Japanese kinds are usually worked on imported stocks of A. palmatum.CH

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Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

A. acuminatum, Wall. (A. caudatum, Brandis, not Wall. A. sterculiaceum, Koch, not Wall.). Allied to A. argutum. Tree: lvs. 3-lobed. 3-4 1/2 in. long, glabrous and light green beneath; lobes long-acuminate, and doubly serrate: wings of (r. spreading at a right angle. Himalayas. G.C. II. 15:364 (as A. caudatum). Tender at the Arnold Arboretum.—A. ambiguum, Dippel. Allied to A. pictum. Lvs. pilose beneath: fls. and fr. unknown. Doubtful species of unknown origin.—A. amplum, Rehd. Allied to A. longipes. Tree, to 35 ft.: lvs. 5-lobed, 4-7 in. broad, glabrous: corymb nearly sessile, 5-6 in. across. Cent. China.—A. barbinerve, Maxim. Allied to A. argutum. Shrubby tree: lvs. 5-lobed, coarsely serrate: pistillate racemes usually 7-fld.: fr. larger. Manchuria. S.T.S. 1:86.— A. Boacii, Spach. Probably hybrid. A. monspessulanum X tataricum.—A. brevilobum, Hesse:A. parviflorum.—A. caesium, Wall. Allied to A. insigne. Tree: lvs. 5-lobed, glabrous, whitish beneath, 6-8 in. across; lobes acuminate, obtusely crenulate-serrate. Himalayas, Not hardy N.—A. capillipes, Alaxim. Allied to A. rufinerve. Tree, to 30 ft.: lvs. 3-lobed, glabrous beneath, red when unfolding, 3 1/2-5 in. long: fls. on slender stalks about 1/2in. long. Japan. S.T.S. 1:16. Not perfectly hardy at the Arnold Arboretum.—A. caudatum, Brandis:A. acuminatum.—A. cinerasens, Boiss. Shrub or amall tree: lvs. 3-lobed, 1/2-2 in. long. Similar to A. monspessulanum. Persia.—A. coriaceum, Tsch. (A. creticum, Tratt. A. polymorphum, Spuch). Probably A. creticum x pseudoplatanus.—A. crassipes, Pax. Supposed to be a hybrid between A. obtusatum and A. pcnnsylvanicum.—A. crasssipes. Hesse:A. parviflorum.—A. creticum, Linn.:A. orientale.—A. creticum, Tratt.:A. coriaceum.—A. Dieckii, Pax (A. platanoides yar. integrilobum, Zabel). Similar to A. platanoides. but lobes entire; probably A. Lobelii X platanoides.—A. distylum, Sieb. & Zucc. Allied to A. oblongum. Tree: lvs. ovate, 5-7 in. long, cordate, crenately serrate, light green and lustrous beneath. Japan, G.C. II. 15:499. S.I.F. 2:41. J.H.S. 29:76.—A. Durettii, Pax. Probably A. monspessulanum X pseudoplatanus.—A. erianthum, Schwerin. Allied to A. caudatum. Small tree: lvs. 5-lobed, 2-3 1/2 in. long, lobes broad, unequally and .simply serrate, nearly glabrous beneath: fls. with densely villous disk. W.China. S.T.S. 1:80.— A. Fargesi, Franch. (A. laevigatum var. Fargesii, Veitch). Allied to A. oblongum. Tree, to 30 ft.: lvs. coriaceous, lanceolate-oblong, 2-3 1/2 in. long, narrowed at the base, penninerved, glabrous, light green beneath, not reticulate. VV. China. J.H.S. 29:91.— A. flabellatum, Rehd. Allied to A. Oliverianum. Tree, to 30 ft.: lvs. 7-lobed, deeply cordate, 3-5 in. across, light green beneath and villous along the veins. Cent. China. S.T.S. 1:81.—A. Franchetii, Pax. Tree, to 15 ft.: lvs. globed; slightly pubescent beneath or glabrous at maturity and light green, ,3-4 in. long; lobes broadly ovate, acute, remotely toothed: fls. in short pubescent racemes from lateral leafless buds, with the lvs.: fr. with the wings spreading at right angles or less, nutlets thick, hairy: winter-buda with numerous imbricate scales. Cent. China. S.T.S. 1:87. Belongs to the section Lithocarpa.—A. fulvescens, Rehd. Allied to A. pictum. Tree, to 60 ft.: lvs. usually 3-lobed, 2-4 in. across, beneath covered with a yellowish or fulvous pubescence. W. China. Hardy at the Arnold Arboretum,—A. heterophyllum, Willd.:A. orientate.—A. Hookeri, Miq. Allied to A. Davidii. Tree, 60 ft.: lvs. cordate-oblong, serrate, 4-6 in. long, quite glabrous beneath. Himalayas.—A. hybridum, Spach. Probably A. italum X pseudoplatanus.—A. hjjbridum, Baudr.:A. Boscii.—A. laevigatum. Wall. Allied to A. oblongum. Small tree: lvs. oblong, nearly entire, attenuate at the base, penninerved, green beneath. Himalayas, China.—A. laevigatum, Hort. :A. acuminatum. — A. Lobelii, Ten. Allied to A. cappadocicum. Branches glaucous: lvs. rounded at the base; lobes mostly undulated, abruptly pointed. Italy.—A. Maximowiczii, Pax (A. urophyllum, Maxim.), Allied to A. Tschonoskii. Small tree: lvs. 3—5-lobed, doubly serrate, the middle lobe much elongated, long-acuminate, glaucescent beneath, glabrous, 2-3 in. long: fr. slender-stalked; wings spreading at an obtuse angle. Cent, China. S.T.S. 1:84.— A. Mayrii. Schwerin. Allied to A. cappadocicum and A. amplum. Tree with smooth bark: Iva. usually 3-lobed, glabrous, 3 in. across; lobes very broad, long-acuminate: wings of fr. upright, incurved. Japan.—A. mexicanum, Pax (Negundo maxicanum, DC. A. serratum. Pax). Allied to A. Negundo. Lfts. 3, pubescent beneath, densely serrate: fr. glabrous; wings spreading at an acute angle. Mex.—A. micranthum, Sieb. & Zucc. Allied to A. Tschonoskii. Shrub or small tree: lvs. 5-7-lobed; lobes inciaed and doubly serrate, glabrous: fls. and fr. small. S.Z. 1:141. S.I.F. 2:44.—A. neapolitanum, Ten.:A. obtusatum.—A. neglectum, Lange (A. zoeschense, Pax). Probably A. campestre X Lobelii. Var. Annae Schwerin. Young lvs. deep red, later olive-green. M.D. 1908:1.—A. obtusatum, Waldst. & Kit. (A. neapolitanum. Ten.). Allied to A. Opalus. Small tree or shrub: lvs. 5-lobed, pubescent beneath, about 4 in. across; lobes broad, often rounded, obtusely denticulate: wings of fr. spreading at a right angle or less. S. Eu., N. Afr. H.W. 3, p. 47. Tender at the Arnold Arboretum.—A. orientale. Linn. (A. creticum, Linn. A. sempervirens, Linn. A. heterophyllum, Willd.). Allied to A. monspessulanum. Shrub, 4 ft.: lvs. nearly evergreen, short-stalked, orbicular or oval, entire or 3-lobed, 1/2-1 l/2 in. long, glabrous. Orient.—A. parviflorum, Franch. & Sav. (A. crassipes, Hesse, not Pax. A. brevilobum, Hesse). Allied to A. caudatum. Tree: lvs. 3-5-lobed, pubescent beneath, 4-6 in. across; lobes broadly ovate, acute, doubly serrate: wings of fr. spreading at an obtuse angle. Japan. S.I.F. 2:42. Not quite hardy at the Arnold Arboretum.— A. pectinatum. Wall. Allied to A. pennsylvanicum. Tree: lvs. 3-lobed, setosely serrulate, 2 1/2-3 1/2 in. across, the middle lobe elongated, acuminate. Himalayas. G.C. II. 15:365.—A. Peronai, Schwerin. Supposed hybrid of A. Opalus x monspessulanum. Originated at Vallombrosa near Florence.—A. robustum. Pax. Allied to A. palmatum. Small tree: lvs. 7-9-lobed, cordate, 3-4 in. across, glabrous beneath except the tufts of hairs in the axils of the veins; lobes ovate, acuminate, sharply serrate: wings of fr. nearly horizontally spreading. Cent. China.—A. rotundilobum, Schwerin (A. barbatum, Booth, not Michx.). Possibly A. obtusatum X monspessulanum.—A. Schwerinii, Pax. Affinity doubtful. Lvs. coriaceous, ovate-oblong, cordate, undivided or 3-lobed, glaucous beneath, soon glabrous, 5-7 in. long: Ss. and fr. unknown. Probably from the Himalayas. Var. marmoratum, Schwerin, has the lvs. variegated with light green. Var. monophyllum, Schwerin, has the lvs. 2-3 1/2in. long,—A. sempermvirens, Linn.:A. orientate.— A. serratum, Pax:A. mexicanum.—A. sikkimense. Miq. Allied to A. Davidii. Tree: lvs. cordate-ovate, coriaceous, long-acuminate, quite glabrous, entire or serrulate, 4-7 in, long: wings of fr. spreading at a right angle. Himalayas.—A. sinense. Pax. Allied to A. Oliverianum. Tree: lvs. 5-lobed, cordate or sometimes truncate, glaucescent beneath, glabrous, 3-6 in. long; lobes ovate, acuminate, sparingly appressed-serrate: panicle elongated: wings of fr. spreading horizontally. Cent. China. S.T.S. 1:78. J.H.S. 29:92.—A. sterculiaceum. Wall. (A. villosum. Wall.) Allied to A. Franchetii. Tall tree: lvs. 3-5-lobed, cordate, 6-8 in. across, tomentose below, coarsely serrate: racemes from lateral leafless buds: fr. in long pendulous racemes, often branched at the base; wings of fr. nearly upright. Himalayas.—A. sutchuenense. Franch. (A. sutchuense. Pax). Allied to A. mandshuricum. Small tree: lfts. 3, oblong-lanceolate, unequally serrate, glaucous beneath, 1 3/4-3 in. long: corymb many-fld., rather dense. Cent. China. S.T.S. 2:112.—Probably not in cult.; the plant figured by Veitch under this name is A. Henryi.—A. tegmentosum, Maxim. Allied to A. pennsylvanicum. Lvs. 3-4 in. long, glabrous beneath; lobes short: fla. small. Manchuria. G.C. II. 15:75.—A. trifidum, Hook. & Arn. Allied to A. tataricum. Small tree: lvs. coriaceous, cuneate-obovate, 3-lobed, glaucous beneath, glabrous, 2-3 in. long: lobes entire. China, Japan. S.Z.2:143.—A. urophyllum, Maxim.:A. Maximowiczii.—A. Veitchii, Schwerin. Possibly A, crataegifolium x rufinerye.—A. villosum, Wall.:A. sterculiaceum. —A. Wilsonii, Rehd. Allied to A. Oliverianum. Tree: lvs. 3-lobed, light green beneath, glabrous, 3 1/2-4 in. across; lobes ovate to oblong-ovate, acuminate, entire, or sparingly serrate: panicle elongated: wings of the fr. spreading at a right angle. Cent. China. S.T.S. 1:79.—A. zaechense, Pax:A. neglectum.CH

The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.


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