|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Caprifoliaceae (from the old genus Caprifolium, meaning a goat-leaf, possibly in reference to the climbing habit). Honeysuckle Family. Fig. 55. Shrubs, very rarely herbs: leaves opposite, simple or pinnate: flowers bisexual, regular or irregular; calyx 4-5-toothed, or 4-5-fid; corolla gamopetalous, 4-5-lobed, tubular or rotate; stamens of the same number as the corolla-lobes and alternate with them, epipetalous; ovary inferior, 1-5-celled; each cell 1 to many-ovuled; style 1 or obsolete; stigmas 1-5: fruit a berry or capsule.
The 11 genera and about 350 species are distributed principally in the north temperate zone. The tropical species are mostly confined to the mountains. A few species of Sambucus and Viburnum occur in the southern hemisphere. The family is very closely related to the Rubiaceae but the leaves are exstipulate; also to the Cornaceae and Valerianaceae. Some fossil species have been found.
Many species of Honeysuckle exhale a sweet odor after sunset. The berries of Lonicera Caprifolium are said to be diuretic; those of L. Xylosteum are laxative. The berries of the European elder (Sambucus nigra), and of the American elder (S. canadensis) are cooked and eaten and are also made into wine. The dried flowers of elder were formerly used in cases of fever. The roots of the North American Triosteum perfoliatum furnish a kind of ipecac. Other species are locally used in medicine. Many are ornamental.
Eight or 10 genera are in cultivation in N. America: Viburnum (Sheepberry, Hobble-bush. Wayfaring Tree, Arrowwood, High Cranberry, Snowball Bush); Sambucus (Elder); Triosteum (Feverwort, Horse Gentian. Wild Ipecac); Symphoricarpos (Snowberry, Coral Berry); Abelia; Diervilla (Weigela, Bush Honeysuckle); Linnaea (Twin-flower); Lonicera (Bush and Climbing Honeysuckles, Woodbine, Trumpet Honeysuckle).CH
Much of the debate over the taxonomy of this group has been settled. Two of the most familiar members of the family, the elder and the viburnum, have been moved into Adoxaceae, along with some other genera.
The evolutionary taxonomy of this group includes
- Heptacodium (Seven-son Flower): 1 species
- Leycesteria: 6 species
- Lonicera (Honeysuckle): 180 species
- Symphoricarpos (Snowberry): 17 species
- Triosteum (Horsegentian): 6 species
- Abelia : 30 species
- Dipelta: 4 species
- Kolkwitzia (Beautybush): 1 species
- Linnaea : (Twinflower) : 1 species
No longer included in Caprifoliaceae:
(regarded by some as belonging to a separate family Adoxaceae /Alseuosmiaceae)
(regarded by some as belonging to a separate family Adoxaceae /Carlemanniaceae)
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963