|Valeriana subsp. var.||Valerian|
Valeriana is a genus of flowering plants in the family Valerianaceae. It includes a number of species of which the best known is the garden valerian Valeriana officinalis. Some species are native to Europe, others to North America and South America (especially in the Andes).
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Valeriana (Latin valeo, to be strong, in allusion to medicinal uses). Valerianaceae. Valerian. Glabrous or rarely pubescent or villous perennial herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs, which are erect or scandent, most of them hardy and showy garden plants.
Roots strong-smelling: lvs., especially the radical ones, entire or dentate, or the cauline or all pinnatifid or once-, twice-, or thrice-pinnatisect: cymes sometimes dense, few-fld. and terminal, or clustered in dense or interrupted spikes, sometimes laxly corymbosely or variously panicled: fls. small, white or rose; calyx-limb before anthesis not conspicuous, after flowering divided into 5-15 plumose-ciliate setae; corolla-tube attenuate at base, limb 5-cleft; stamens 3, rarely by abortion 1 or 2: fr. a compressed achene with the rear face 1-nerved, the front face 3-nerved.—About 265 species, mostly in the temperate and colder regions of the northern hemisphere but a few in the tropics and in the extra-tropical regions of the southern hemisphere.
The valerians in the American trade are hardy perennials of easiest culture. Only V. officinalis is well known. This is one of the characteristic plants of old gardens, being prized for the spicy fragrance of its numerous flowers in spring. It spreads rapidly from suckers arising from the roots, soon forming large colonies. The common species are often grown from seeds. V. alba and V. rubra of the trade are no doubt Centranthus ruber.
V. alba, Mass., is Centranthus ruber var. albus.—V. coccinea, Hort., is offered (Centranthus?).—V. coccinea alba, Hort., is offered in the trade.—V. Cornucopiae, Linn., is Fedia Cornucopiae.— V. macrosiphon, Vilm., is Centranthus macrosiphon.— V. rosea, Hort., is offered in the trade.—V. rubra, Linn., is Centranthus ruber.
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Pests and diseases
- Valeriana acutiloba
- Valeriana arburua
- Valeriana arizonica
- Valeriana buxifolia
- Valerian californica
- Valeriana capitata
- Valeriana carnosa
- Valeriana celtica - Alpine valerian or valerian spikenard
- Valeriana columbiana
- Valeriana dioica - marsh valerian
- Valeriana edulis
- Valeriana montana
- Valeriana occidentalis
- Valeriana officinalis - garden valerian
- Valeriana pauciflora
- Valeriana phu
- Valeriana scandens
- Valeriana scouleri
- Valeriana septentrionalis
- Valeriana sitchensis - Sitka valerian
- Valeriana sorbifolia
- Valeriana texana
- Valeriana tiliifolia
- Valeriana tripteris
- Valeriana wallichii
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963