|Gongora subsp. var.|
Gongora, abbreviated Gga in horticultural trade, is a member of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae). It consists of 65 species known from Central America, Trinidad, and tropical South America, with most species found in Colombia. They grow in wide geographical range from wet forests at sea level to mountainous regions in the Andes, as high as 1,800 m.
Gongora was one of the first orchids described by a western man. Several new Gongora orchids have been discovered in the last ten years, while many others have been assigned under another specific name. Yet there is still some confusion. Many species lack the right description. Some species, such as Gongora portentosa and Gongora superflua, are very rare. DNA fingerprinting will in time contribute to an exact taxonomy of this genus.
All species in this genus are epiphytes with a sympodial growth. The white aerial roots are very thin, growing in a dense pack. Some roots even grow upright instead of hanging down. This specialisation helps in forming the ball of aerial roots. Many are found in association with ant nests.
The conical pseudobulbs are ridged and are about 8 cm long. In some species, such as Gongora similis, the pseudobulb can produce up to six inflorescences in succession. Two alternate leaves originate from the end of each pseudobulb. The leaves are rather leathery and heavily veined, growing to a length of about 30 cm.
The racemose inflorescence grows from the base of the pseudobulbs. The stem first grows upright, but bends early in development and becomes pendulous. The numerous flowers hang upside down, with the lip upwards. The almost circularly bent pedicels are characteristic of this genus. There are two lateral sepals and one dorsal sepal. The blooms of several species are waxy. The flowers of many species have distinctive fragrances. Some smell like unburned candle wax, others like nutmeg, cardamom, or cinnamon. The pollinia are superposed on a stipe (a cellular pollinium stalk), which is held by a viscid disc.
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Gongora (after Don Antonio Caballero y Gongora, Bishop of Cordova). Includes Acropera. Orchidaceae, tribe Vandae, subtribe Cyrtopbdieae. A small group of plants with curious spotted flowers, not common in cultivation, and of little value except for collections.
Distinguished from the other members of the sub- tribe by being epiphytic, having the dorsal sepal adnate to the column, and by its many-fld. raceme: dorsal sepal erect, spreading, thus appearing to spring from the base of the column; lateral sepals spreading or reflexed from the base of the column, wider; petals small, adnate to the base of the column; labellum continuous with the column, narrow and fleshy, with 2 thick lateral horned or aristulate lobes, and a central one which is saccate or even folded, forming a vertical plate; column erect or ascending, not winged: pseudobulbs sulcate, sheathed, bearing 1 or 2 large, plicate lvs.: fls. borne in a long, loose, pendent raceme arising from the base of the pseudobulbs.—Over 20 species from Brazil to Mex.
Gongoras are extremely free-flowering, and grow easily in a mixture of sphagnum and peat, with a little charcoal added for drainage. During the growing season they require plenty of water, and brisk heat. In the winter they require little water, but should be kept in a moist atmosphere in a cool, shaded house. They grow well with cattleyas, or in a temperature of 60° in winter and 80° in summer. Some growers prefer to use fine fern root packed tightly and for a top finish a little fine moss found in damp meadows, instead of sphagnum, which in this climate is quick to decay. CH
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Pests and diseases
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According to Rod Rice in Infragen. Rev. Gen. Gongora (2002, 2003) the genus Gongora can be classified into subgenera and sections as followswp:
Subgenus Gongora wp
- Section Aceras with four species
- Section Gongora with about 30-33 species [G. atropurpurea, G. catilligera, G. latisepala, G. odoratissima, G. rufescens]
- Section Gratulabunda with four species
- Section Grossa with five species
- Section Truncata with nine species [G. charontis, G. dressleri,G. longipes, G. tracyana]
- one section with at least five species [G. escobariana, G. garayana, G. portentosa, G. sanderiana]
- Section Acropera with one species
- Section Armeniaca with two species and one to two subspecies
- Section Cassidea with four species [G. amparoana, G. cassidea, G. galeata, G. tridentata]
- Gongora aceras (Ecuador).
- Gongora alfieana (S. America)
- Gongora amparoana (Costa Rica).
- Gongora arcuata (Colombia).
- Gongora armeniaca (C. America)
- Gongora armeniaca subsp. armeniaca (C. America).. Pseudobulb epiphyte
- Gongora armeniaca subsp. cornuta (Nicaragua to Costa Rica). Pseudobulb epiphyte
- Gongora aromatica (C. America)
- Gongora atropurpurea (Trinidad and Tobago to S. Trop. America).
- Gongora beyrodtiana (Colombia).
- Gongora bufonia (SE. Brazil).
- Gongora cassidea (Mexico - Chiapas) to C. America).
- Gongora catilligera (Colombia).
- Gongora charontis (Colombia).
- Gongora chocoensis (Colombia).
- Gongora claviodora (C. America).
- Gongora colombiana (Colombia).
- Gongora cruciformis (Peru).
- Gongora dressleri (Panama).
- Gongora ecornuta (Ecuador to Peru).
- Gongora erecta (Peru).
- Gongora escobariana (Colombia).
- Gongora flaveola (Colombia).
- Gongora fulva (Panama to Colombia).
- Gongora galeata (Mexico to Guatemala).
- Gongora galeottiana (SW. Mexico).
- Gongora garayana (Colombia).
- Gongora gibba (Costa Rica to Panama).
- Gongora gratulabunda (Colombia).
- Gongora grossa (Venezuela to Ecuador).
- Gongora hirtzii (S. Colombia to Ecuador).
- Gongora histrionica (Costa Rica to N. South America).
- Gongora hookeri (Guyana to Peru).
- Gongora horichiana (Costa Rica to Panama).
- Gongora ileneana (Bolivia).
- Gongora ilense (Ecuador).
- Gongora irmgardiae (Colombia).
- Gongora lagunae (Venezuela).
- Gongora latibasis (Panama to Ecuador).
- Gongora latisepala (Colombia).
- Gongora leucochila (Mexico - Veracruz, Chiapas to C. America).
- Gongora maculata (Trinidad, Guyana, Peru).
- Gongora maculata var. lactea (Trinidad) Pseudobulb epiphyte
- Gongora maculata var. maculata (Guyana, Peru). Pseudobulb epiphyte
- Gongora minax (N. Brazil).
- Gongora nigrita ( South America)
- Gongora nigropunctata (N. Peru).
- Gongora odoratissima'' (E. Colombia to Venezuela).
- Gongora pardina (Ecuador).
- Gongora passiflorolens (Colombia)
- Gongora pleiochroma (N. & W. South America)
- Gongora portentosa (Colombia).
- Gongora portentosa var. portentosa (Colombia) Pseudobulb epiphyte
- Gongora portentosa var. rosea (Colombia). Pseudobulb epiphyte
- Gongora pseudoatropurpurea (Colombia).
- Gongora quinquenervis (Colombia to Peru) : this species forms a complex for several ill-defined species
- Gongora retrorsa (W. Venezuela)
- Gongora rosea (Colombia to Peru).
- Gongora rubescens (Ecuador).
- Gongora rufescens (Colombia to Ecuador).
- Gongora saccata (Mexico - Veracruz).
- Gongora sanderiana (Colombia, Peru).
- Gongora scaphephorus (Ecuador to Peru).
- Gongora seideliana (Mexico - Chiapas).
- Gongora similis (Colombia).
- Gongora sphaerica (Colombia).
- Gongora superflua (Ecuador).
- Gongora tracyana (Colombia, Peru).
- Gongora tridentata (Mexico - Chiapas to Guatemala).
- Gongora truncata (Mexico to C. America)
- Gongora unicolor (Mexico - Veracruz, Chiapas to C. America).
- Houllora (Gongora x Houlletia) wp
- Gonginia (Gongora x Paphinia) wp
- Polygora (Gongora x Polycyncis)wp
- Stangora (Gongora × Stanhopea) wp
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963