|Rosa gallica subsp. var.|
It is a deciduous shrub forming large patches up to two metres tall, the stems with prickles and glandular bristles. The leaves are pinnate, with three to seven bluish-green leaflets. The flowers are clustered one to four together, single with five petals, fragrant, deep pink. The hips are globose to ovoid, 10-13 mm diameter, orange to brownish.
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Rosa gallica, Linn. Upright shrub, with creeping root- stock, rarely attaining 5 ft. high: sts. usually densely covered with prickles and bristles: lfts. 3-5, leathery, broadly oval or ovate, rounded at base, usually doubly serrate with glandular teeth, rugose above, pubescent beneath, deflexed, 1-2 in. long; rachis glandular-pubescent and often prickly: fls. on rather stout, upright, glandular-hispid and bristly pedicels, deep pink to crimson, 2-3 in. across; receptacle glandular-hispid: fr. subglobose or turbinate, brick-red. June. Cent, and S. Eu., W. Asia.—The following are the most important forms: Var. Agatha, Thory. With rather small, very double purple fls., the outer petals spreading, the inner ones concave. Var. incarnate, Rehd.( R. incarnata, Boreau, not Mill.). Lite, narrower, elliptic-ovate to elliptic-oblong: rachis not prickly; flowering branches unarmed: fls. large, pale crimson, solitary: fr. ovoid. Var. macrantha, Hort., similar to the preceding, but fls. pale pink, finally white. Var. officinalis, Thory (A. provinciales, Mill. Var. plena.. Regel), is like the typical form but with double fls.
Var. versicolor, Thory. Rosa Mundi; also York And Lancaster Rose. Petals striped white and red. Var. purnila, Braun (?. austríaca, Crantz). Dwarf form, with creeping root- stock: fls. red, single.
The species is easily cultivated on well drained soil in full sun to semishade; it can survive temperatures down to −25 °C. It is one of the earliest cultivated species of roses, being cultivated by the Greek and Romans and it was commonly used in Mediaeval gardens. In the 19th century it was the most important species of rose to be cultivated, and most modern European rose cultivars have at least a small contribution from R. gallica in their ancestry.
Pests and diseases
Cultivars of the species R. gallica and hybrids close in appearance are best referred to a Cultivar Group as the Gallica Group roses. The ancestry is usually unknown and the influence of other species can not be ruled out.
The Gallica Group roses share the vegetative characters of the species, forming low suckering shrubs. The flowers can be single, but most commonly double or semidouble. The colours range from white (rare) to pink and deep purple. All Gallica Group roses are once flowering. They are easily cultivated.
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963