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 Rosa subsp. var.  Rose
Bridal Pink, hybrid tea rose, Morwell Rose Garden
Habit: shrub
Height: to
Width: to
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Lifespan: perennial
Exposure: sun, part-sun
Water: moderate
Features: flowers, fragrance, cut flowers
Hidden fields, interally pass variables to right place
Minimum Temp: °Fwarning.png"°F" is not a number.
USDA Zones: to
Sunset Zones:
Flower features:
Rosaceae > Rosa var. ,

Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

Rosa (ancient Latin name). Rosaceae. Rose. Ornamental shrubs chiefly grown for handsome flowers, also for ornamental fruits and attractive foliage.

Deciduous or sometimes evergreen, upright, less often climbing or creeping shrubs with usually prickly sts.: lvs. alternate, odd-pinnate, rarely simple, stipulate (Figs. 3430, 3431): fls. solitary or corymbose at the end of usually short branchlets; petals and sepals 5, rarely 4; stamens numerous; pistils numerous, rarely few, inclosed in an urn-shaped receptacle, which becomes fleshy and berry-like at maturity, containing several or many bony achenes, usually erroneously called seeds; the fr. itself is called a "hip." Rosa is a widespread genus, easily distinguished by well- marked characters from allied genera, but in the limits of the genus itself the characters are exceedingly variable and it is very difficult to group into sections and species the innumerable forms which often pass gradually into each other. In no other genus, perhaps, are the opinions of botanists so much at variance in regard to the number of species. While some, as Bentham and Hooker, estimate the number at about 30, the French botanist Gandoger actually describes from Eu. and W. Asia alone 4,266 species. The larger number of liotanists recognize over 100 species. The roses are almost equally distributed through the colder and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, in Amer, extending to N. Mex., in Afr. to Abyssinia, and in Asia to India. The fls. show a remarkable tendency to become double, and such forms have been known and cult, from time immemorial. These innumerable garden forms, increasing every year, are almost exclusively of hybrid origin and are therefore omitted in the botanical classification of the genus.

Many attempts have been made to subdivide the genus with more or less satisfactory results; the more important are those by A. DeCandolle, Lind- ley, Regel, and Baker. Nowadays the arrangement proposed by Crepin is considered the most natural and satisfactory and has been followed in the account given below. No good general monograph has been published since Lindley's " Monographia Rosa- rum" (1820), except a rather short one by Regel in 1877. Of the more recent publications the most important are those of Crepin, especially his "Primitiae Monographiae Rosarum." In consulting his publications one has to bear in mind that the author changed his opinion somewhat respecting the value of the species during his studies of the genus. In his later publications he takes a broader view in regard to the specific value of the rose forms and unites under one species many forms which he formerly considered as distinct species. An illustrated monograph valuable for the knowledge of the older garden forms and species is Thory and Redoute's "Les Roses," with 160 colored plates (1817-20). It is quoted below as Red. Ros. As the first edition in folio is found in only very few libraries, the smaller edition is cited in parenthesis by volume, groups and the sequence of the plates, neither pages nor plates being numbered continuously in this edition. The most recent book on roses is Miss Ellen Willmott's "The Genus Rosa," with about 150 excellent colored and numerous black plates; in this work all the important species of roses, including most of the recently introduced Chinese species and the types of our cultivated garden forms, are described and figured. It is quoted below as W. R. (with the number of the species).

The economic properties of the rose are of little importance. The most valuable product is attar of roses, a highly fragrant essential oil. It is chiefly manufactured in southeast Europe and western Asia from Rosa alba and R. damascena, and of late this industry has been successfully transplanted to Germany. See Perfumery Gardening, page 2547. The fruits of some species, especially of R. villosa and R. canina, are made into preserves.

The roses are mostly low or medium-sized shrubs, usually with prickly stems, often more or less stolonif- erous, sometimes climbing or creeping, with small or medium-sized odd-pinnate deciduous or evergreen foliage and with mostly large and showy, solitary or clustered flowers ranging in color from purple, crimson, or pink to white and yellow, and followed by ornamental usually scarlet or bright red fruits remaining on the branches a long time, sometimes through the whole winter. There is probably no flower more popular and better known than the rose. From tune immemorial poets have sung its praise, and the love of it can be traced through the most ancient documents in the literature of the Aryan race. It is remarkable to note, however, that the rose has played a far inferior part in the horticulture of the Chinese and Japanese. It is probably the first flower known and cultivated in a double state, and it is the double-flowered garden form whose image the word "rose" almost invariably brings to the mind, while to the wild single-flowered roses much less attention has been given. The ornamental value of single roses is rarely fully appreciated. The wild roses have a simple charm and graceful beauty of their own. No doubt the bold and dominating beauty of the double roses has eclipsed the more modest attractions of the single roses. The longer blooming season of the garden roses is also a factor in their favor. Though the wild roses cannot, perhaps, be compared with their more noble sisters of the garden, they are nevertheless fully able to rival other ornamental shrubs for the adornment of park and plot. Most of the species are hardy or almost hardy North; among the hardiest are R. rugosa, R. virginiana, R. Carolina, R. acicularis, R. blanda, R. Woodsii, R. heliophila, R. palustris, R. rubri- folia, R. pendulina, R. canina, R. cinnamomea, and R. pomífera. Hardy at least as far north as Massachusetts are R.-spinosissima, R. rubiginosa, R. multiflora, R. Helens, R. arvensis, R. setigera, R. gallica, R. setipoda, R. omeiensis, while others, as R. Wichuraiana, R. sern- pertrirens, R. sericea, R. fœtida, R. hemisphserica, require some shelter or protection. Hardy only South are R. Banksix, R. bracteata, R. chinensis, R. Lsevigata, R. odo- rata, R. stellata. The recently introduced species from central and western China have not yet been sufficiently tested, but a large percentage appears to be hardy as far north as Massachusetts.

According to the habit peculiar to each species, they can be used for a variety of purposes. Most of the species are shrubby, rarely exceeding 6 or 8 feet, and may be used for borders of shrubberies or for covering slopes and rocky ridges, especially R. rugosa, R. Carolina, and various American species. Some kinds, a be as R. rugosa and R. virginiana, make handsome ornamental hedges. The climbing species are used for covering walls, trelliswork, arbors, porches, or pillars, but perhaps display their beauty to the most advantage when allowed to ramble over shrubs or rocks. The half- evergreen R. Wichuraiana makes a beautiful ground- cover and may also te used for edging groups and flowerbeds. The fruits of most species are decorative and often remain on the branches all winter. The red sterna of most of the species of the Carolina and Cinnamomeio groups are effective in winter also. The foliage of most of the American species turns purple-orange or yellow in autumn, and so does that of It. rugosa, which is, in regard to the foliage with its dark green leathery and glossy leaves, the handsomest of the hardy roses.

With few exceptions the roses are of easy cultivation and grow in almost any kind of soil, except in a loose and very sandy one. They are readily transplanted. The wild roses need little pruning; they should only be thinned out and the weak and old wood be removed; long and vigorous shoots should not be shortened, especially in the climbing varieties, as these shoots are the most floriferous.

All true species can be propagated by seeds, but as roses are likely to hybridize, only seeds taken from isolated plante ought to be used. The hips should be gathered as soon as ripe, the seeds washed out and sown at once or stratified and sown in spring. They germinate the first year, but if kept in the hips during the winter and allowed to become dry, they usually do not germinate until the second year. Mice are very fond of the seeds. Almost all species grow readily from cuttings of nearly ripened wood in summer under glass. Many species, especially the climbing roses, can be propagated by hardwood cuttings taken in fall and planted in spring. Layering is less often practised, except with a few species, like R. foetida and R. hemisphaerica, which do not grow readily from cuttings. Some species, especially those of the groups of Cinnamomeae, Carolinae, and Gallicae, can be increased by root-cuttings; the roots are taken up in fall, stored during the winter in sphagnum or sand in a frost-proof room, and sown in spring in drills and covered about 2 inches deep. The species of the last-named groups and some others are also often increased by suckers and division. Budding and grafting is less often done with the wild roses and should be avoided for roses in shrubberies where the individual plants cannot be carefully watched; the stock usually throws up suckers and outgrows the cion, often in a short time. For general notes on culture and varieties, see Rose.

The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.

Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

Rose (see also Rosa). The queen of flowers; woody plants, some of them distinctly shrubby, many forms much developed horticulturally, all grown for the beautiful and mostly fragrant flowers in white, yellow, and shades of red.

It been been said that the garden rose does not thrive in North America as it does in Europe; but however true this may have been, it scarcely holds today. The success of the rose in this country is very largely a question of the selection of adaptable varieties. These varieties are mostly the compounds of various types and species. In most garden roses it is now impossible to trace the original species with accuracy. For horticultural purposes, a purely botanical classification is of minor consequence, although, in the main, the leading garden-groups follow old specific lines. For a garden classification that follows botanical lines closely, see Baker in Gardener's Chronicle, II. 24, p. 199 (1885). It is essential to success, however, that the intending rose- grower have a clear understanding of the main horticultural groups and the kinds of varieties in them, and this information is provided in Barron's article, beginning on page 3001.

Following are the equivalents of some of the common names of roses:

Ayrshire .............R.arrensis var. capreolata. Banks Rose............R.Banksiae. Bengal ...............R.chinensis. Bourbon ..............R.borbonica. Champney............. R.Noisettiana. Cherokee............. R.laevigata. Cinnamon............. R.cinnamomea. Damask ...............R.damascena. Dog ..................R.canina. Eglantine............ R.rubiginosa. Macartney............ R.bracteata. Memorial..............R.Wichuraiana. Moss................. R.gallica var.muscosa. Musk................. R.moschata. Noisette............. R.Noisettiana. Prairie.............. R.setigera. Provence............. R.gallica. Scotch............... R.spinosissima. Sweetbrier.......... .R.rubiginosa. Tea...................R.odorata.

When one speaks of roses, the hearer is likely to think only of the large impoved kinds of the gardens; and yet there are more than one hundred well-recognized species-forms of Rosa, while only a dozen or so have entered largely into the horticultural forms. The systematic account beginning on page 2981 describes sixty species, and many more are entered in the supplementary list at its conclusion. The results of domestication are marvelous, and yet the real breeding of roses is little more than begun, and it confounds the imagination if one contemplates what may appear when endless new combinations are made with the many species that are yet little modified by man. The beginnings in this endeavor by persons in this country and elsewhere, indicate a rich field for useful experiment.

These other species of Rosa, aside from the domesticated forms, are of interest and merit largely for land-scape planting. Usually we do not think of roses as "shrubbery" but rather as "flowers;" yet Rosa rugosa is a good landscape subject, and the same is true of R. setigera, R. multiflora, R. laevigata, and many other species. The lists and suggestions by Rehder, on page 2982, are valuable in this connection. Some of the native wild rosesare most attractive in their natural setting, not alone in flowers but in foliage, color of stems, fruit, and general habit; and if the grounds include a suitable area, these plants may well be transferred in quantity. In half-wild and informal borders, on banks, along streams and the margins of woods, many of the roses are admirable. The usual horticultural roses are of little merit in landscape work, because they do not supply sufficient foliage and they lack strong shrubby characteristics; and this fact has no doubt obscured the mer ts of the wild single roses as material for planting.

The highly improved roses are essentially flower- garden subjects, and they produce better bloom when grown by themselves in regular areas, plantations or beds, where they may receive tillage and such other treatment and care as are specially adapted to them. The preferable location is in the private parts of the place, at the side or rear, and well removed from tall buildings and overhanging trees. They should be given ample space, good soil, and liberal fertilizing, as one would provide these requisites for strawberries, bush-fruits or tomatoes.

The value of the rose product is particularly difficult to estimate. A census-accounting could assemble figures for the nursery stock, the glass devoted to rose- culture, and the value of roses sold by commercial establishments; but the greatest value of the rose is the unmeasurable satisfaction that it returns in thousands of homes and the ministry that it renders to millions of persons.

The literature of the rose is voluminous. The American book writings on the subject are listed on page 1552, Vol. III. For a list of rose books in all languages, see "Bibliografia de la Rosa," by Vergara, Madrid, 1892.

Rose organizations.

The American Rose Society was organized in New York, March 13, 1899. "to increase the general interest in the cultivation and improve the standard of excellence of the rose for all the people," to organize a system of exhibitions, and otherwise to foster, stimulate, and increase the production in every possible way of improved varieties of the rose, suitable to our American climate and requirements." The Society is a clearinghouse for those interested in roses.

Including at first primarily so-called commercial rose-growers—those who grow roses the year round for cut-flowers—the Society has gradually broadened until a considerable number of interested and capable amateur rose-growers are included. Intensive consideration for the rose is fostered by the exhibitions that the Society either conducts or over parts of which it exercises authoritative supervision. For example, four so-called national flower shows, held in Chicago, New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, have had as a prominent attraction notable displays of roses forced into bloom in the early spring, usually offered in competition for the prizes gathered under the leadership of the Society. Inasmuch as these displays have included many of the better climbers and garden roses, large numbers of persons are thereby brought into contact with these advances in rose-culture.

Rose test-gardens have been established under the supervision of The American Rose Society in several places, including, for example, Hartford (Conn.), Washington, Minneapolis, and at Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. In these gardens no less than five plants of certain varieties are grown under comparable conditions, and committees of the Society make an annual inspection at the time of bloom. The rose test-garden in Hartford, in connection with the well-known and beautiful municipal garden planted in 1904 by Theodore Wirth, has proved a wholesome attraction to the more than 115,000 persons who have annually visited it. The supermtendent of the Hartford park system estimates that the area included in the rose- garden attracts visitors at the rate of 85,000 persons a year, thus increasing the use of a park system.

The Society maintains a bureau of registration for new roses, provides a scale of points for judging both blooms and plants, and awards medals and certificates for new roses. Its membership includes three classes— life, active, and associate—the latter relation being open only to amateur rose-growers. In 1916, The American Rose Society began the publication of The American Rose Annual, under the editorship of J. Horace McFarland.

Under the leadership of E. M. Mills, of Syracuse, New York, an organization was formed in that city under thetitle of the Syracuse Rose Society, for the purpose of stimulating local interest in rose-growing. The ideal proposed by Dr. Mills is noted in the following extract from his article in the 1916 American Rose Annual: "It is far more important that 500 people in a city have rose-gardens with from twenty-five to a few hundred bushes in each of them than that there should be only a few large show gardens." Other societies have been formed in the Pacific Northwest directly to promote rose-growing, and various garden clubs and local societies have affiliated with The American Rose Society under its rules. There are a number of affiliated interests. Any horticultural society in the United Stetes or Canada holding an annual exhibition of roses may affiliate with The American Rose Society, and receive medals for the exhibitors.

The present assembly on the rose, aside from the systematic account of Rosa, pages 2981 to 2999, comprises the following articles:

PageHorticultural classification of roses (Barren)................ 3001 Propagation of rosee (Watson)................................. 3004 Roses for the amateur (Huey, Beal)............................ 3006 Outdoor roses for the mid-continental region (Irish).......... 3010 Roses in California (Braunton)................................ 3012 The cultivation of rosee under glass (Pierson).................3014 Rose insects (Crosby and Leonard) .............................3018 Rose diseases (Maseey) ........................................3019

Horticultural classification of roses.

The garden classification of roses presents considerable difficulty, as the several groups have been so much mixed that the original characteristics of each overlap at nearly all points. This is particularly true of the Perpetuals, of which any close classification is impossible. The difficulties increase as one advances. Certain clear-cut characters may be taken to mark given distinct groups in the summer roses, with which the horticulturist has not busied himself so much. Nearly all of these characters are reproduced in the Perpetuals, and, being blended, give rise to endless confusion; thus the following scheme is merely suggestive and should be studied in comparison with the botanical classification (see page 2983).

American rose-culture, so far as garden varieties are concerned, can hardly be said to have established itself as yet. Our growers are today striving to overcome the short-lived character of the blooms, so as to secure in our gardens something of the rose beauty of Europe. The Wichuraiana, Rugosa, and Multiflora roses, combined with our native species and blended again with the best representatives of the garden-groups already grown, with the admixture of some of the newer species from western China, seem to offer the solution. The beginning has already been made. The hot sun and trying climatic conditions of our summers are fatal to the full beauties of the roses of France and England. The flower is developed so quickly that it has no opportunity to "build" itself, and once developed it fades as rapidly. What has been accomplished for the other florists' flowers remains yet to be accomplished for the rose, and the American rose of the future must be devel- loped to suit the circumstances in the same way that the American carnation has been produced.

Class I. Summer- flowering Roses, blooming mostly once only.

Garden-group 1. Provence. Fragrant: branching or pendulous: fls. generally globular: foliage bold, broad, wrinkled, deeply serrate: prickles uncertain; sometimes fine and straight, sometimes coarse and hooked. Rich soil. Prune closely unless very vigorous. Types are Moss rose, a crested form of the Provence (Fig. 3442).Pompon, a dwarf group; cupped flowers. See also No. 8. Sulphurea, an undesirable yellow form of difficult cultivation.

Garden-group 2. The Damask and French. Damask roses are fragrant: growth robust; spinous: lvs. light green, downy, coriaceous. Hardy: free-flowering: scent destroyed on drying.

French roses: Fragrant (moderately): more upright and compact in growth than the Provence: prickles smaller and fewer: fls. generally flat. Very hardy, growing in any soil; petals bleach in strong sunlight: makes abundance of wood, which should be thinned out; perfume develops in the dried petals.

Hybrid French or Hybrid Provence, a less robust group with smoother, short-jointed wood and generally light-colored flowers. Type Princess Clementine. Other subdivisions include hybrids with nearly all of the Perpetual group. Madame Plantier is a Hybrid Noisette. Coupe d'Hebe is a Hybrid Bourbon.

Hybrid China (China x French and Provence, partaking more of those parents). Growth more diffuse than the French rose: foliage smooth, shining, and remains on the bush late in the year; thorns numerous and strong. Vigorous of growth; very hardy, and not generally well adapted to poor soil; requires but little pruning.

Garden-group 3. Alba, or white roses. A very distinct group: all light-colored flowers of moderate size: leaf whitish above, deep green below: spineless (some hybrids with other groups are very thorny), of free growth; prune closely. Type, Felecite Parmentier and Maiden's Blush.

Garden-group 4. Ayrshire. Climbing roses; very hardy: slender shoots suitable for trellises and trunks of trees: fls. produced singly. Useful for pot cultivation when trained over a frame; fls. vary from white to deep crimson. Type, Queen of the Belgians, Dundee Rambler. Ruga is a hybrid between this group and one of the Teas; fragrant.

Garden-group 5. Briers. Under this heading may be grouped most of the well-defined types of garden roses, mostly small-flowered and which do not readily respond to high cultivation. They are more useful as flowering shrubs in the garden than for cut-flowers. The blooms are generally short lived.

Austrian or Yellow Briers. Small leaflets: solitary flowers: bark chocolate-brown. Very hardy, but require free air and dry soil; will stand very little pruning, as it produces flowers from the upper ends of the old wood. Types, Harison's Yellow, Austrian Copper, and Persian Yellow.

Scotch or Spiny. This group is well recognized by its excessive spininess; compact low bushes, flowering abundantly and early: flowers small, double. Multiply by underground suckers; fragrant. One hybrid of this group, Stanwell, is a Perpetual.

Sweetbriar. Distinguished by the fragrance of its leaves: the fruits are also decorative: foliage small: flowers light-colored and not of much merit.

Lord Penzance Briers. This is a group of hybrids of R. rubiginosa (the Sweetbrier), and the older large- flowered varieties, especially Bourbon and Damask. The results are hardly distributed in America as yet; a few are to be found in select collections. Generally speaking they may be described as very greatly improved Sweetbriers. Brenda is particularly desirable for its fruit.

Prairie rose (R. setigera). A native species; promises under cultivation to develop some valuable acquisitions, especially in hybridization with other groups: Type, Baltimore Belle (Fig. 3439).

Alpine or Boursault. Native of the Swiss Alps; semi-pendulous, long, flexible, smooth shoots: flowers in large clusters; mostly purple or crimson flowers. Good for pillars; very hardy; especially suitable for shady places; should be well thinned in pruning, but the flowering wood left alone: type Amadis. Produced by crossing Teas and R. alpina.

Garden-group 6. Multiflora. The Multiflora group divides itself naturally into the Multiflora true and Baby Perpetual Ramblers. R. multiflora, the parent type, is characteristic of the varieties here, the flowers being produced in large corymbs and continuing over a comparatively long time. These varieties are useful as pillar and trellis roses and respond to high cultivation. In pruning, remove only the old canes, leaving the young new growth to carry flowers next year. The American Pillar rose belongs here (Fig. 3461). This group is particularly well adapted to the wild- garden. The name Polyantha, sometimes applied to these roses, should be dropped to avoid confusion. The Rosa polyantha of botanists is a synonym of R. multiflora (p. 2985), but the Polyanthas of horticulturists are hybrids of R. multiflora with R. chinensis or Hybrid Perpetuals; they are low bushy plants, first described as Polyantha varieties by Carriere in Revue Horticole, 1884.

Garden-group 7. Evergreen, The so-called Evergreen roses hold their foliage until very late in the year and in hybridization appear likely to yield varieties which are practically evergreen.

Sempervirens, useful as pillar roses, producing flowers in corymbs: very hardy: vigorous growth: free bloomer: requires considerable thinning in pruning. Types, Felicite perpetuella.

Wichuraiana (Fig. 3440), most popular of all the rampant roses: very hardy, growing in any soil: this promises to be the basis of a very valuable race of American roses: flowers in the type white. Hybrids have been raised from Hybrid Perpetual and Tea varieties giving large flowers, scented; such are Gardenia and Jersey Beauty. Many hybridists have worked on this species, and the past few years have thoroughly made good the early promise of remarkable developments.

Cherokee (Rosa laevigata) of the southern states can be grown satisfactorily away from its native regins only in a greenhouse. (Figs. 3458, 3459.)

The Banksian (Rosa Banksiae). Two varieties of this are known, the yellow and the white. Requires greenhouse treatment: evergreen: needs very little pruning, merely shortening the shoote that have bloomed. Yellow variety scentless, white variety possessing the odor of violets: flowers are produced in graceful drooping clusters.

Garden-group 8. Pompon. A small-flowered Provence rose. See No. 1.

Garden-group 9. Hybrid Perpetual, or Hybrid Remontant. A large and comprehensive group of much- mixed origin. The mixture with other groups has become so involved as to render separation practically impossible. Thecharacteristics may be described as stiff, upright growth, sometimes inclined to pendulous: flowers of all types: foliage dull green, wrinkled, not shiny: embracing generally the characteristics of the Provence, Damask, French, and the Chinese groups: flowers large, inclined to flat, generally of dark colors. By far the largest and most comprehensive division. (Figs. 3462, 3463.)

Garden-group 10. Hybrid Teas form a section of the Hybrid Perpetual group crossed back on to the Tea- scented China, gradually losing all identity. They differ from the pure Hybrid Perpetuals by having foliage of a deeper green and less wrinkled. Some of the best forcing roses are in this group, which promises the greatest development for American rosarians; Robert Scott is a type of this class and is raised from Merveille de Lyon, Hybrid Perpetual, and Belle Siebrecht, Hybrid Tea. The La France type belongs here. (Fig. 3464.)

Garden-group 11. Moss. A perpetual-flowering group of the Provence. See Summer Roses and Fig. 3442.

Garden-group 12. Bourbon. Dwarf and compact growth, with rounded, more or less shining leaflets: very floriferous: brilliant colors: good outline: in perfection late in the season: requires close pruning. Type, Hermosa (or Armosa).

Garden-group 13. Bourbon Perpetual. Very floriferous: flowers moderate-sized, well formed, in clusters. Type, Madame Isaac Pereire.

Garden-group 14. China (Rosa chinensis). The China or Monthly rose is characterized by its positively perpetual manner of flower. Its blooms become much darkened in color from the action of the sun's rays: flowers small and irregular in shape. Somewhat tender.

The Tea-scented China or Tea Rose (Fig. 3465), Rosa odorata, is an allied species. It has large thick petals, with the characteristic tea scent: flowers generally light-colored, pink and creamy yellow: growth free; the best for forcing. The group has been hybridized with all other sections and the Tea influence is seen throughout the rose family. Some of the varieties are climbing. Type Bon Silene and Homer.

Lawrenceana. Dwarf forms, requiring the same treatment as the Teas. Commonly known as the Fairy Rose.

Garden-group 15. Pernetiana. Crosses of Hybrid Teas and "Austrian" brier. Habit generally like Hybrid Teas but more vigorous, with stout spines and coarse shiny foliage. The chief distinction, however, is in the remarkable coloring of the flowers, which is indescribable, but often spoken of as "shrimp," with blendings and shadings of burnished copper. Tendency to shed foliage unless grown on almost pure clay. Some forms, as Juliet, show affinity to Austrian in resenting pruning, but later kinds are closer to Tea. Type Madame Edouard Herriot.

Garden-group 16. The Musk. Very fragrant: rather tender: derived from Rosa moschata: flowers of pale color. This group has been much hybridized with others, and its identity is lost as a garden plant in that of itsderivatives, especially the Noisette. The flower- buds are elongated and the flowers produced in clusters.

Noisette (Fig. 3466). Larger flowered than the true Musk roses, flowering very late: free growth: more hardy. The group bears a certain superficial resemblance to the Teas and requires moderate pruning; will grow in any soil. The subgroup has been largely blended with the Teas and with a loss of hardiness. In consequence it has fallen into disuse.

Garden-group 17. Ayrshire. Perpetual forms of the Ayrshire. For characters, see Summer Roses.

Garden-group 18. Perpetual-flowering varieties of the Multiflora group. The term in gardens is taken to include a large number of small cluster-flowered, climbing roses, and is particularly important in American rose-culture, as the basis of a new section of hybrids with the Teas and (erroneously) including hybrids of Wichuraiana and Teas. M. H. Walsh in Mas-sachusetts, M. Horvath in Ohio, and Jackson Dawson in Massachusetts have accomplished important work in this field. Some of Walsh's recent introductions, as Debutante and Sweetheart, not as yet fairly tried, and the Dawson rose, may be classed here. They are valuable as trellis and pillar roses for garden decoration.

Garden-group 19. Perpetual Briers. Of this group there are about five important types.

Rugosa or Japan rose, a low-growing bush: hardy: useful as a hedge plant, and specially adapted for exposed situations near the seashore (Figs. 3446-3448). Hybrids have been made with other Perpetual groups, especially Teas and H. P. s. Mme. Georges Bruant is a type. The Rugosa blood is strongly seen in all cases.

Microphylla has minute leaflets; now called Rosa Roxburghii.

Berberidifolia has leaves somewhat resembling barberry; now known as Rosa persica.

Perpetual Scotch, a perpetual-flowering form of Rosa spinosissima, probably a hybrid from the Damask.

Garden-group 20. Evergreen. Two types, as follows:

Macartney, slender: sweetly scented and very floriferous throughout the season. Is derived from R. bracteata

Wichuraiana. The Wichuraiana hybrids already referred to under Group 7 may dubiously be included here. They have not yet been sufficiently tested. The perpetual-flowering Ramblers have foliage partaking of Wichuraiana and Tea characteristics. Leonard Barron.

Propagation of roses.

The rose is propagated by seeds, cuttings, grafting or budding, by layers and by divisions. The genus is so large and diversified and the requirements are so many that the whole art of the propagator is needed to satisfy the claims of the Queen of Flowers.

Seeds.—Roses are grown from seeds not only to obtain new varieties but also because many true species are economically procured in this way, e. g., R. canina, R. multifora, R. ferruginea, R. rugosa, R. rubiginosa, and the like. The seeds should be gathered in autumn and at once stratified with moist sand or allowed to ferment in tubs with a little water, and kept in a fairly warm place. When well rotted they can be easily rubbed and washed clean and should be planted at once, either in carefully prepared and well-manured beds out- of-doors or in pans or flats in a cool greenhouse. It is sometimes advised that the hips should first be dried and then rubbed clean, but this method often causes delay in germination, a matter sufficiently troublesome without additional complications; they should always be kept moist. Whether they are planted under glass or in the garden it is difficult to forecast their coming up. It may be within a few weeks, e. g., R. multiflora under glass; or at the beginning of the second growing season after planting, e. g., Sweetbrier seed planted out-of-doors in November, 1914, may be expected to germinate in the spring of 1916, while R. rugosa sown at the same time may come up the following spring, i. e., in 1915, or, a season intervening, it will appear with the Sweetbriar in 1916. Stratifying or fermenting the seeds tends to secure uniform germination within a reasonable time. It has also been suggested, and many things confirm the idea, that early gathering helps to hasten germination; in other words, do not wait for excessive ripeness, but pick the hips as soon as the seeds harden, some time before the fruit is deep red. Until these matters are better understood, all rose seed sown out-of-doors, either in autumn or spring, should be mulched 2 to 3 inches deep with pine needles or other litter. Frequent examinations should be made in spring and the covering at once removed when the seedlings appear; if they do not appear, let the mulch remain to keep down weeds and retain moisture in the seed-bed. Pans or flats in which seed has been planted should be kept at least eighteen months before discarding, with the soil always moist. Notwithstanding the difficulties of germination, the young seedlings make most satisfactory growth and may generally be transplanted into nursery rows when one year old. When two years old they are fit for permanent planting. A winter protection of pine boughs is helpful to the young plants. Some seedling roses are extremely precocious, blooming before they are one year old, e. g., some Hybrid Perpetuals and so-called Polyantha roses. The first flowers of seedling roses do not always indicate their real character: in hybridizing it is well to wait for the second or third season before discarding.

Cuttings.—A common means of propagation, under glass and out-of-doors, is by cuttings. Under glass short cuttings 2 to 3 inches long can be made in November and December from wood of the current year's growth. They should be firmly planted in sand, in flats or pans (Fig. 3467) and kept in a cool greenhouse. They root in February or March, and can either be potted in thumb-pots or kept on in flats until May or June, when they should be planted out in rich beds; salable plants are obtained in October. This is a good way to strike R. setigera and its varieties, Crimson Rambler and its allies, R. multiflora, and their various offspring, R. Wichuraiana and its hybrids, Madame Plantier and doubtless many others. Rosa indica, in all its forms, all tender species, and many Hybrid Perpetual roses, are propagated by cuttings of hardened wood grown under glass. Peter Henderson says the wood is in the best condition when the bud is "just open enough to show color." Blind eyes can also be used, and the smaller wood is better than the strong rampant growth. Plant in sand and in a warm house; bottom heat and a close frame are often used but are not necessary. The cuttings are from 1 1/2 to 2 inches long; single eyes strike readily.—In the open air, cuttings of ripened wood may be planted in spring in V-shaped trenches in carefully prepared and well-manured ground. They make strong plants in autumn. Wood of the season's growth is gathered before severe frost, cut into 6-inch lengths, tied in bundles, and stored through the winter by burying in sand. When planted, one eye only should show above ground. This method is recommended for the hardy varieties named above for propagating from short cuttings under glass, but will not give such a large percentage of rooted plants. It is highly probable that some Moss roses, R. virginiana, R. palustris, R. spino- sissima, and the like, roses which sucker, can be propagated by cuttings of root or rootetock, but no systematic attempt has been made in this direction.

Budding and grafting.—These are old and well- established methods of propagation. Budding in foreign nurseries is practised in the open air, in June and July, with us in July or August. A dormant shield- bud is employed. The stock is R. Manetti, R. canina, or any good briar, or R. multiflora; in Holland R. palustris is esteemed. In European nurseries, R. canina is used for standard, R. Manetti for dwarf stocks. Under glass roses are budded also, with a shield-bud, at any season when the bark slips, using for stock a vigorous variety. About Boston the yellow and white Banksian roses once had high local repute for stock for Tea and other tender kinds.

Grafting roses in the open air in this country is not often employed, but in the South, Hybrid Perpetual andother hardy roses are said to be root-grafted in winter (very much as apple stocks are grafted), tied in bundles, stored in sand, and planted out in early spring, the worked portion being set well below the surface. Root- grafting is an easy and convenient method of propagation under glass. Jackson Dawson's practice is to use the whip- or splice- graft, but the veneer-graft is also employed, with bits of R. multiflora root 2 to 3 inches long for the stock, the cion being somewhat longer but of equal diameter. They are firmly tied with raffia and waxed; made into bunches, they are covered with moist moss in an open frame in a coolhouse and left until united. They are then potted off and grown on until they can be hardened off and planted out in May or June, the point of union being well below the surface. A specimen of Dawson's work is shown in Fig. 3468, the stock being a bit of R. multiflora root; its age is about three months. Rosa multiflora is an excellent stock for garden roses, since it does not sucker; this great advantage, is also obtained by using the root- graft as above described. (See article on roses in Country Life in America, March, 1916, by Geo. C. Thomas, Jr.) The commercial florists use Manetti stock planted in thumb-pots. Cut back to the crown, this is splice-grafted and kept in a warm close frame until united; plants are afterward grown on in pots until large enough to put out in the beds, in which they will flower the following winter. There is some difference of opinion among gardeners as to the respective merits of own- root and grafted plants: just now many of the foremost growers prefer the latter for forcing. It is a perplexing question and could be settled by only a series of exact experiments costing much time and money. It is also quite possible that matters of temperature, soil, moisture, and food are equally important factors.

Layering.—This method is employed only when few plants are required; it is cumbersome and wasteful. Layer in early spring, using wood of the last year's growth when possible; the bark of the buried portion should be abraded.

Division is an easy means of increasing Rosa virgini- ana, R. nitida, R. palustris, R. spinosissima, Crimson Moss and many other varieties which sucker. Plant thickly in good soil, allow them to grow from three to four years, then lift and tear apart. It will be found that the increase is large and that plants so obtained are salable after one year's growth in the nursery. The year in the nursery may be omitted with the quicker-growing kinds which are to form new plantations on the same estate. B. M. Watson

Roses for the amateur.

Roses may be successfully grown in any soil that will produce fair crops of grain, vegetables, or grass. Certainly the best results will be secured in the more favorable soils and situations, but everyone who loves a rose and possesses a few feet of ground with plenty of sunshine can have his own rose- garden and find pleasure and health in cultivating the plants.

The soil and the beds.

The ideal soil is a rich deep loam, but a good rose-bed can be made in clay, sand, or gravel at little expense and labor. Even the city resident whose house has been erected on the site of an exhausted brick-yard, at a small expense can secure sufficient good soil from the outskirts and manure from the adjacent stables to make a rose-garden that will grow as good plants and flowers as those of his more favored friends who have acres at their disposal, provided always that the sunlight can reach the beds for at least half the day.

The preparation of the ground is the first step of importance. Roses are injured by wet feet, and if the soil is wet it must be thoroughly drained. This can be accomplished by digging out the bed to a depth of 3 feet and filling in 1 foot with broken stone, bricks, cinders, or anything that will allow a free passage of the water through the soil. If this is not sufficient and the water is not carried away, provision must be made for tile-draining; but, except in very extreme cases, the drainage before mentioned will be found amply sufficient. The composition of the soil should depend on the class of roses to be grown, for the Hybrid Remon- tants do best in a heavy soil containing clay, while those having Tea blood prefer a lighter, warmer ground.The beds may be made of any desired shape, but a width of 4 feet will usually be the most satisfactory, as a double row can be planted at intervals of 2 1/2 feet, which will be all that is necessary for the strongest- growing varieties, and the blooms can be gathered from each side without the necessity of trampling on the soil. Space may be economized by planting as in the diagram, Fig. 3469.

The plants will then be 1 foot from the edge and 30 inches apart, and each plant will be fully exposed to light and air and will not interfere with its neighbors.

In preparing a bed on a lawn, the sod and earth should first be entirely removed and placed apart; then the best of the subsoil may be taken out and placed on the other side of the trench, and, lastly, the portion to be discarded is removed, making in all a depth of at least 2 feet. The bottom or floor is then loosened to the full depth of a pick-head, the good subsoil replaced and mixed with a generous dressing of well - decomposed stable manure; lastly, the surface soil and sod are well broken up and also thoroughly enriched with manure, and the bed is filled to the level of the adjoining surface with enough good soil added to replace the discarded earth. When the bed has settled, the surface should be at least 1 inch below that of the adjoining sod, in order that all the rainfall may be retained. It is a mistake to make any flower-bed higher than the adjacent surface, as in hot weather the soil dries out and the plants suffer.

If the bed is intended for the hardy Hybrid Perpetual or Remontant class, it should contain a fair proportion of clay well mixed with the soil. A sufficient amount is always present in what is known as a heavy loam. If the soil does not contain this naturally, the material should be added and thoroughly incorporated with the other ingredients. If the bed is intended for Hybrid Teas, Teas, Bourbons, or Noisettes, the soil should be lighter, and, if naturally heavy, should have added to it a proper quantity of sand or leaf-mold, and be thoroughly mixed as before. Roses are rank feeders; therefore be liberal with manure for every class.

The plants and planting.

Garden roses may be secured from the dealers grown in two ways: on their own roots, and budded on the Manetti or similiar stock. There is much difference of opinion among growers as to the relative value of the two methods of propagation, and it must be admitted that some of the stronger varieties will do equally well either way; but the opinion of the writer, based upon the experience of more than a quarter of a century, is that all of the less vigorous varieties are far better budded than on their own roots, and some are utterly worthless unless budded, notably, Reine Marie Henriette and Viscountess Folkestone, both charming roses when well grown. The budded plants are mostly grown in Europe, taken up as soon as the wood is ripened in the autumn, and shipped to us in the dormant state in time for planting in the latitude of Philadelphia before the ground is frozen. They are usually received in such excellent condition that rarely one in a hundred of the hardy sorts fails to make a good growth, and a fair bloom the following season.

With the tender sorts, dormant planting out-of- doors in late autumn is attended with much risk, because of the inability of these plants to endure the rigors of our winters before becoming established. Consequently they need much more protection than the hardy varieties. It is really much better to defer the planting until the early spring, if the plants can be safely housed through the winter. After they have become successfully established their safety is assured, and they will repay in vigor and excellence the extra work expended on them. Few amateurs, however, have the conveniences for caring for a number of plants under cover in the winter. Therefore they must take the risk of planting in the autumn or cultivate plants grown on their own roots. (For further discussions of budded and grafted roses, see page 3005.)

For budded roses, holes at least 1 foot deep and 15 inches wide should be made for each plant, the collar or point where the bud was inserted and from which the new growth starts placed 2 inches beneath the surface of the soil, the roots spread out and downward (care being taken that no roots cross each other), and all roots covered with fine soil free from lumps of manure. (Fig. 3471.) Manure should never be placed in actual contact with the roots, but near at hand, where the new feeding roots can easily reach when growth begins. The remaining soil should then be packed in firmly, the surface leveled and covered with about 3 inches of coarse litter and manure, and the long wood cut back to about 18 inches to prevent the plant being whipped and loosened by high winds. This extra wood is left to encourage root-action in the spring and should be cut back to three or four eyes as soon as they can be detected when pushing out. Always cut above and close to a strong outside bud, without injuring it, to develop an open and free head, this admitting light and air. If the uppermost bud is on the inside surface of the shoot, the new growth will be directed inward, dwarfing and hampering the plant and preventing proper development. The deep planting above described is necessary to prevent suckers from being thrown out by the roots, as these will speedily choke and kill the less vigorous wood which we are endeavoring to develop. From the writer's experience, the only objection to budded plants is this danger of suckering from the roots; therefore no one should attempt to cultivate budded roses who cannot distinguish the brier should it appear, or who is too careless to dig down at once and cut the wild shoot clean off at the root, rubbing it. smooth to prevent its starting again. A very little experience will enable anyone to distinguish the brier. The canes are covered with minute thorns and bear seven leaflets, instead of the usual five. Should any doubt remain, follow the shoot down through the ground and if it starts below the collar, it is a brier; remove it. These wild shoots

usually appear a few inches outside of the regular growth, rarely inside; consequently there is little difficulty in detecting and removing them.

Roses from pots should be planted as soon as the spring weather has fairly settled and all danger of frost is over, that the plants may be firmly established before the heat of summer. Roses planted late in the season never do well. The holes need be made only a little larger than the pot in which the plant in growing. Choose a cloudy day, or the time just before a rain, or late in the afternoon, and, after making the hole, knock the pot off by inverting the plant, and striking the edge sharply on a firm object (the handle of a spade which has been firmly placed in the ground in an upright position will answer well). Press the ball of earth firmly between the hands to loosen the earth without injuring the roots, fill the hole with water, insert the plant a very little deeper than it stood in the pot, fill in with soil and pack the earth around it firmly. Pot- grown plants always require staking if the varieties are of upright growth.

Tea roses make a charming effect, where the climate is too cold to winter them in the open successfully, by planting in a bed 6 feet in width, the rows 1 foot from the edge and 2 feet apart, and the bed of any desired length or any multiple of 3 feet. A sectional frame made from tongued and grooved fence-boards, 2 1/2 feet in height at the back and 2 feet in front, facing east or southeast and fastened together with hooks and eyes or screws, the whole covered with ordinary coldframe sash (6 by 3 feet), will preserve the tender varieties through a severe winter. The sash should be freely opened when the temperature is above 30° F. and air admitted during the day when it is 10° or 15° lower. Always close before sunset and open as soon as the sun shines each morning. Opening the sash to keep the plants cool and prevent growth is just as essential as covering to protect from cold, if abundance of flowers is desired. A few days neglect in opening the sash when the temperature is above 30° will destroy most of the buds for the coming June, as they will be forced out, and one cold night will kill them. Protect from rains or snows, and do not water. Sufficient moisture reaches the roots from the outside to keep the plants in a healthy condition. Teas may be grown successfully in such a bed for many years, and give hundreds of fine blooms from May until November and remain so vigorous that many of the new shoots will be 1/2 inch in diameter.

Climbing roses make a very effective background, and if trained on a high wire fence give a beautiful display. The strong-growing varieties should be planted 8 feet apart and will each easily fill a trellis 9 feet high. They also look well trained on the house porch, but are much more likely to be attacked by insect enemies than when planted in the open. Roses grown on porches are usually attacked by aphides and slugs, the leaves becoming riddled and skeletonized, which only infrequently occurs when they are planted in the open sunny garden. If roses are wanted around porches, the Microphyllae, white and pink, and the Crimson Rambler can be safely planted, as they are not attacked by the slug; but the blooms do not compare favorably with many other roses of their habit. The other varieties may also be grown around porches, provided that they can be planted where the drippings from the roof will not fall on them and they are kept free from slugs. Climbing Teas can be grown successfully in the latitude of Philadelphia only in the case of a few varieties.Many of the finer kinds are worthless, in spite of all the protection that can be given them, unless they are covered with glass. Lamarque, Bouquet d'Or, Cloth of Gold, Triomphe de Rennes, Marechal Niel, and Reve d'Or have, in the writer's experience, all perished in the first winter, but Reine Marie Henriette, Gloire de Dijon, William Allen Richardson, and Celine Forestier will do well and yield satisfactory results; Reine Marie Henriette blooms finely and makes a magnificent growth, as may be seen in Fig. 3472. The trellis is 10 feet wide and 9 feet high.

Hybrid Sweetbriars, of the Marquis of Penzance kind, are a valuable addition to rose collections. The foliage is abundant, healthy, vigorous, and fragrant, and the exquisite shading of each variety forms a beautiful contrast with the others. It would be difficult to choose among them, for all are worthy of a place, when there is sufficient space for them to revel. They should have a high trellis and be planted fully 8 feet apart.

Pruning roses.

Of the common garden roses, the flowers are produced on new wood of the season that arises from the canes or the crown, or else, in the case of shrubby species, from old trunks or arms. It should be the aim of the grower to secure strong clean canes for this flower-bearing, and not to have so many of them each plant as to produce much small weak bloom.

Standard or "tree" roses are sometimes grown, but they require so much care in keeping down suckers and in staking and tying, that they are little known in this country. They are grown abroad when a few excellent blooms are desired or where space is limited. These tree roses are top- budded, on strong stocks, to the desired variety. Sometimes an effect approaching the true tree rose is produced by tying up a few very strong canes to a stake, as shown in Fig. 3474. The usual type of rose-bush in America, however, of the Hybrid Perpetual class, is shown in Fig. 3475.

Pruning the dwarf-grouping Hybrid Perpetual may be begun late in March and regulated by the quantity or quality of the blooms desired. If the effect of large masses be wanted, four or five canes may be left 3 feet in height and all very old or weak growth entirely removed. This will give a large number of flowers, effective in the mass but small and with short weak stalks scarcely able to support the weight of the heads and not effective as cut-flowers, as this sort of pruning is entirely for outside show. After the bloom is entirely past, the long shoots should be shortened back, that the plant may make good and vigorous wood for the next season of bloom. But if quality be desired, all weak growth should be removed, every remaining healthy cane retained and cut back to 6 or 8 inches. Always cut just above an outside bud, to make an open head that will admit light and air freely. After the first season's growth, there may be about three canes to be retained, but with good care and cultivation the number will increase yearly, until after fifteen or twenty years there will be at least as many canes to be utilized as the plants are years old. The writer had a bed over twenty years from planting, in which each plant, after close pruning, measured 15 to 18 inches in diameter, each cane throwing up four to six shoots 1 to 2 feet in length and sufficiently vigorous in most varieties to hold up the largest flowers and to give magnificent specimen flowers for cutting. Roses grown in this way do not need stakes. They are sufficiently strong and vigorous to hold erect any weight they may be called upon to bear; but late in the autumn, before the high gales of November arrive, they should be cut back to about 2 feet to prevent their being whipped by the winds, for this would loosen the plant and break the newly formed feeding- roots. The plant should not be cut back to the point suggested for spring pruning, as in the hot Indian summer the upper eyes will surely be forced out and the promised blooms for the ensuing season destroyed; so in pruning for protection from No-vember blasts, enough wood should be left to avoid all danger of the lower buds being forced out. The upper buds always develop earliest. Some varieties will not produce large flower- stalks under any method of treatment, notably Prince Camille de Rohan, La Rosarie, and Rosie- riste Jacobs; but almost all the other kinds do better under this method than any other, if quality is desired.

Pruning dwarf-growing Tea roses is conditioned on the fact that they will not endure such vigorous cutting back as the Hybrid Perpetuals. All good strong shoots should be retained unless they form a very close head, when it is better to remove a few from the center. The canes should be shortened about one-third of their length, the branches cut back to one or two eyes, and after each period of bloom the longest shoots should be trimmed back sparingly.

Bourbons need even less trimming. Souvenir de Malmaison, Mrs. Paul, and others of this class should have only the weak ends of each shoot removed, and no more wood cut away than is necessary to remove weak and unhealthy parts.

Climbing roses should be pruned sparingly by simply shortening-in the too vigorous shoots and cutting the laterals back to two eyes. Tie all to the trellis in a fan shape, dividing the space as evenly as possible. Fig. 3473 shows the same Reine Marie Henriette pruned and trained on trellis. These continue in flower until November, the early bloom in June being the finest. Hybrid Teas should be pruned for quality, and the proper time is when the buds are swelling. The amount of wood to leave on the plant varies with the variety. Shortening the shoots to 4 to 8 inches gives fair results. Cut back the weak growers more severely than the vigorous kinds. To provide for good blooms later, leave three good buds in the axils of the leaves at the base of the shoot when removing flowers or withered blossoms (Beal).

Hybrid Sweetbriers require only such pruning as to shorten back the over-vigorous growth and occasionally to remove some of the oldest shoots to prevent crowding.

Tillage.Just before growth begins in spring, the surplus rough manure should be removed from the beds and all the remaining fine particles forked in. Deep cultivation is not desirable, as the roots are likely to be injured or broken. Three inches in depth is quite sufficient for a bed that has not been trampled on, and this should be performed with a four- tined digging-fork, which is less likely to cause injury to roots than a spade. The beds should then be neatly edged and the surface raked off smooth and even. Frequent stirring of the surface with a sharp rake is all that is necessary afterward, until the buds begin to develop. Then half a gallon of weak liquid manure applied around the roots of each plant just before a shower will be beneficial. The manure- water should be prepared beforehand, and as soon as a good promise of rain appears, all hands should be called into service and every plant given a full ration. One person should dig a shallow trench with a garden trowel around each plant, the next follow and fill with the liquid manure, being careful to avoid besmirching the leaves; afterward the bed may be raked over level and the rain will wash the food to the roots. This feeding may be repeated with benefit every week until the season of bloom is over, after which stimulation should cease and the plants be permitted to perfect the new wood for the next season's growth. Little pruning is necessary with "cut-backs." So much wood has been removed in gathering the blooms that but little more is left than needed to keep the plants vigorous and healthy. There is another advantage from the system of close pruning: all growths are so strong and vigorous that they are better able to resist insects or disease.

The notion that roses exhaust the soil in a few years and require to be changed into new ground is generally accepted, and is true in most cases; but when beds are formed as previously described and budded roses planted, the vigorous feeding roots find sufficient nutriment in their far-reaching growth to support a healthy development of wood and flowers for many years, especially if a generous top-dressing of manure be applied each autumn and liquid manure supplied liberally during the development of the buds. A top-dressing of wood-ashes after the first spring tillage will materially increase the vigor of the wood and flowers.

Varieties.The following roses are sufficiently hardy for planting, with more or less protection, even in central New York, where all have been tested (Beal) :

Hybrid Perpetual.—Alfred Colomb. A. K. Williams, Anna de Diesbach, Baron de Bonstetten, Baroness Rothschild, Captain Christy, Captain Hayward, Clio, Dr. O'Donel Browne, Duke of Edinburgh, Duke of Teck, Frau Karl Druschki, General Jacqueminot, George Arenda, Gloire de Chedane Guinoisseau, Gloire Lyonnaise, Hugh Dickson, J. B. Clark, John Hopper, Lady Helen Stewart, Madame Gabriel Luizet, Magna Charta, Margaret Dickson, Marshall P. Wilder, Mrs. John Laing, Mrs. R. G. Sharman- Crawford, Oscar Cordel, Paul Neyron, Prince Camille de Rohan, Ulrich Brunner.

Hybrid Tea.-Antoine Rivoire, Augustine Guinoisseau, British Queen, Caroline Testout, Chateau de Clos Vougeot, Chrissie Mackellar, Dean Hole, Dorothy Page Roberts, Duchess of Sutherland, Duchess of Westminster, Earl of Warwick, Edith Part, Etoile de France, Francis Scott Key, Frau Lilla Rautenstrauch, Geoffrey Henslow, George Dickson, Grace Molyneux, Gruss an Teplits, Gustav Grunerwald, Hector MacKenzie, Irish Brightness, Jonkheer J. L. Mock, Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, Killarney. Killarney Queen, Konigin Carola, Lady Alice Stanley, Lady Ash- town, La France, Laurent Carle, Lieutenant Chaure, Madame Jules Grolez, Madame Hector Leuillot, Madame Second Weber, Marquise de Sinety, Mevrouw Dora Van Tets, Monsieur Joseph Hill. Mrs. A. R. Waddell, Mrs. Wakefield Christie-Miller, Old- Gold, Prince de Bulgarie, Queen Mary, Simplicity, Souvenir du President Carnot, Souvenir de Gustav Prat, Sunburst, Viscountess Folkestone, Wellesley, White Killarney, Willowmere.

Pernetiana.—Arthur R. Goodwin, Louise Catherine Breslau, Lyon, Madame Ruau, Rayon d'Or, Soleil d'Or.

Polyantha or Baby Rambler,—Bordure, Catherine Zeimet, Cecile Brunner, Clothilde Soupert, Ellen Poulsen, George Elger, Gruss an Aachen, Leonie Lamesch, Louise Walter, Madame Jules Gouchault, Maman Turbat, Marie Brissonet, Marie Pavie, Mignonette, Mosella, Mrs. W. H. Cutbush, Schneekopf, Triomphe Orleanais.

Moss roses.—Blanche Moreau, Comtesse de Murinais, Crested Moss, Crimson Globe, Princess Adelaide.

Hybrid Sweetbriers.—Amy Robsart, Anne of Geierstein, Brenda, Catherine Seyton, Edith Bellenden, Flora Mclvor, Green Mantle, Jeannie Deans, Julie Mannering, Lady Penzance, Lord Penzance, Lucy Ashton, Lucy Bertram, Meg Merrilies, Minna, Rose Brad- wardine.

Hardy Yellow roses.—Austrian Copper, Harison's Yellow, Persian Yellow.

Bourbon and Noisette.—Beauty of Rosemawr, Burbank, Caroline Marniesse, Champion of the World, Hermosa, Mrs. Paul, Souvenir de la Malmaison.

Hybrid China and Gallica roses.—Madame Plantier, Rosa Mundi, York and Lancaster.

Rugosa hybrids.—Agnes Emily Carman, Conard Ferdinand Meyer, Madame Georges Bruant, Madame Lucien Villeminot, Nova Zembla, Perfection I' Hay, Blanc Double de Coubert.

Climbing roses, large-flowered types—Baltimore Belle, Christine Wright, Climbing American Beauty, Countess M. H. Chotek, Dr. W. Van Fleet, May Queen, Prairie Queen, Ruby Queen, Tausend- schon, W. C. Egan.

Climbing roses, many-flowered types.—Count Zeppelin, Crimson Rambler, Dawson, Dorothy Perkins, Excelsa, Gardenia,Gold-finch, Lady Gay, Lady Godiva, Minnehaha, Mrs. F. W. Flight, Mrs. M. H. Walsh, Hene Andre, Rubin, Source d'Or, Thalia, Trier, Wartburg, White Dorothy.

Climbing roses, single-flowered types.—American Pillar, Bonnie Belle, Delight, Eisenach, Evangeline, Jersey Beauty, Hiawatha, Leuchstern, Paradise, Pink Roamer, Silver Moon.

Tea-scented roses.—Duchesse de Brabant, Harry Kirk, Helen Gould, Isabella Sprunt, Madame Lambard, Madame Joseph Schwartz, Maman Cochet, Marie Lambert, Mrs. Herbert Hawks- worth, Papa Gontier, Princess de Sagan, Souvenir de Catherine Guillot, William R, Smith, White Maman Cochet.

Climbing Tea and other tender roses.—Birdie Blye, Climbing Test- out, Madame Alfred Carriere, Madame Driout, Mrs. Robert Peary, Reine Marie Henriette.

Bengal roses.—Archduke Charles, Douglas, Lucullus, Madame Eugene Marlitt, Maddalena Scalarandis, Queen's Scarlet, and Viridifiora.

Single Hybrid Tea roses.—lona, Irish Beauty, Irish Brightness, Irish Elegance, Irish Harmony, Irish Modesty, and Simplicity.

Much of the charm of growing roses is derived from the accurate knowledge of each variety by name. Yet few amateurs ever accomplish this, chiefly because the labels have been lost or misplaced, and not infrequently a plant becomes known to the cultivator by a name belonging to a neighboring specimen whose label has been placed on the wrong plant. To obviate this, a record should be made in a book kept for the purpose, with a chart for each bed. Fig. 3476. This should be made at once after the plants are set out and before the labels have become detached. Robert Huey. A . C. Beal.

Outdoor roses for the mid-continental region. An intercontinental region, of which central Missouri may be considered a typical representative, often presents gardening problems which markedly differ from those in territory adjacent to large bodies of water. The longer season of intense heat combined with extreme low humidity, together with the frequently sudden and extreme fluctuations in temperature, both during winter and summer, so influence vegetation that if the same degree of perfection is to be attained, and competition successfully met, horticultural operations must be strictly orthodox, and confined to fewer varieties than may be grown elsewhere. This appears to be preeminently true in outdoor rose-growing. This crop can be as successfully produced under the varying conditions to which the region is subject, providing well-established rules, practised by expert rose-growers everywhere in planting and cultivation, are strictly followed, and if the right varieties are chosen. The most hopeless situation is the congested city conditions with air contaminated with poisonous gases. Energy and enthusiasm in gardening in such a place are better spent with other plants.

In planning a location and the arrangement for roses, the purposes for which they are to be grown must be considered. A rose-garden separated from other features of the ground is becoming more and more an important part of parks and private estates. Into this area are grouped a general collection, or specimens of all kinds. It should have a sunny position, though the ground-surface may gradually slope in any direction. Other conditions being identical, a gentle northerly slope is preferred. The kinds may be grouped by types, color, and habit of plant, with all specimens of one kind together rather than the different varieties mixed, —the rugosa, briers, and wild roses bunched in masses, and the climbing sorts on a pergola or trellis. The general dwarf kinds are arranged in irregular or geometrical beds, which, for the sake of convenience, should not be more than from 4 to 6 feet in the greatest width, but of any desired length. Rose-beds may also be located on other parts of the grounds. Low, swampy or poorly drained soil should be avoided, and the beds well separated from trees or large masses of other shrubs. Tea and Perpetual roses should not be grown as single specimens, but always in groups or beds.

Suitable hedges may be made from many varieties of roses: notably rugosa and its hybrids for a broad or thick hedge, Orleans for a dwarf, and Gruss an Teplitz for medium to tall. Hybrid Perpetual sorts may also be used. With the exception of rugosa, it is better to plant in double rows, about 9 inches apart, the plants 18 inches to 2 feet apart, alternating in each row.

Shrubbery masses containing roses only or with an admixture of other shrubs may be made by using wild species, sweetbrier, and rugosa. Climbers and trailers are well and largely used on porches, trellises, tree stumps, and to trail on banks, mounds, and the like.

Types and varieties.

While the Tea roses are the most tender of the groups, many of its varieties can be made to succeed by selecting a location most sheltered from extreme cold, and by providing a thorough winter mulch. Without the latter provision it is useless to attempt any varieties of this type. The following are among the best for this region: Etoile de Lyon, yellow; Maman Cochet, silvery rose; Maman Cochet White; Perle des Jardins, yellow; Mme. Francisca Kruger, coppery yellow; William R. Smith, creamy white; Duchesse de Brabant, pink.

As a type, the varieties of the Hybrid Tea group are more hardy and bloom as freely and continuously as the Teas. There are exceptions with some of the varieties. There is considerable variation in the different sorts, the character of some partaking strikingly of the delicate Teas, while others resemble the more vigorous Hybrid Perpetuals. Many kinds display the best qualities of both types, having their long flowering period and beautiful blooms of good substance, preeminent among which are: Gruss an Teplitz, scarlet; Jonkheer J. L. Mock, pink; General Mac Arthur, scarlet; LaFrance, pink; Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, white; Antoine Rivoire, pale yellow; Mrs. Aaron Ward, yellow; Lady Ashtown, soft rose; My Maryland, salmon-pink; William H. Taft, pink; Helen Gould, carmine-red; William Shean, pink.

The Hybrid Perpetual is a still hardier type in which are to be found varieties producing blossoms that command the highest prices because of their large size, good substance, and long stems. The most noted representative is American Beauty, still largely grown under glass and in many localities out-of-doors, but for the latter purpose not now generally counted on for the degree of success usually attained by other kinds in this region. The limited season of flower-production, and the unattractive plant-display the remainder of the year, places this group second to the Hybrid Teas in usefulness for outdoor culture, even though little or no winter covering is required with the one, while it is important that some protection be provided for the other in the more northerly section of this region: General Jacqueminot, brilliant scarlet-crimson; Coquette des Alpes, white; Ulrich Brunner, cherry-red; Frau Karl Druschki. snow-white; Victor Verdier, crimson; Paul Neyron, dark rose; Madame Charles Wood, scarlet; Magna Charta, bright pink; Mrs. John Laing, soft pink.

Roses of the dwarf rambler class are as hardy as Hybrid Perpetuals and as continuous as Hybrid Teas. The dwarf compact habit, together with the clustered masses of bloom, gives it a distinction all its own. The class is very showy in the garden, but with rather short stems, and therefore less valuable for cut-flowers. Occasionally the blossoms bleach a little in conditions following alternate rain and warm sunshine, but this fault is more than outdone by the wealth of color produced over most of the period from beginning of blooming to frost: Clothilde Soupert, rosy white; Baby Rambler. crimson; Baby Rambler, pink; Orleans, red; Katherine Zeimet, white.

The varieties and hybrids of Rosa rugosa are useful, especially in landscape masses and usually make excellent hedge-rows. (Figs. 3477-3480.) The single-flowered forms produce bright red hips or seed-vessels that remain on the bushes late in the winter. The bright green leaves give these and similar varieties an interesting and pleasing appearance a large part of the season. Good varieties are: R. rugosa alba, white; R. rugosa rosea, pink; R. rugosa rubra, red; Madame Georges Bruant, double white; and others.

Hybrids of the Sweetbrier type are most charming when in bloom, though the flowers are only medium to small in size, and endure for less than a fortnight. It produces conspicuous fruits and fragrant foliage. The plants are a little slow in making their growth, but meet all weather conditions without injury and live to a great age. The plants form a good shrubbery mass or border group. Three good varieties are: Lord Penzance, Lady Penzance, Brenda.

Many of the native species of roses are well used for mass planting, similar to the Sweetbriers There areseveral American species known to thrive and bear abundant bloom at St. Louis: R. palustris, R. virginiana, R. setigera.

The most valuable climbing roses for this region fall under two types, R. multiflora and R. Wichuraiana. Isolated examples have been reported of other forms doing equally well, but the above are by far the most common, and the varieties give so wide a range of color as practically to make other forms unnecessary. They grow rapidly in good soil, and when trained to tree-stumps, trellises, walls or the sides of buildings, quickly make a thorough covering. For covering solid walls and sides of buildings it is better to provide latticework a few inches from the building to give opportunity for free circulation of air between the wall and the vines. The Wichuraianas are especially adapted for trailing over banks, mounds, and the like. Good varieties are: Crimson Rambler, crimson; Dorothy Perkins, both pink and white.

After several years experience with Moss roses, the writer has never seen a plantation that was as satisfactory as other types. At St. Louis they were no more hardy than Hybrid Teas and appear to be more subject to mildew than any other roses. The blooms were not superior to other roses and are rarely grown except by persons maintaining collections of old-fashioned flowers, from whom some good reports have been made. They are more valuable here for their associations than for real horticultural merit.

Soils. Roses take most kindly to a heavy clay loam enriched with well-rotted cow-manure. Such a soil is characteristically abundant in this region. Sand and ground limestone are added to the average clay loam unless it is known that the soil already contains enough of one or more of these ingredients. Except for Tea roses, lighter soils are avoided as much as possible, and even the Teas do better in ground moderately compact.

Great care must be exercised in the preparation of the soil and providing perfect drainage. Ground for a rose-bed should be excavated 2 to 2 1/2 feet deep and the lower 6 inches filled with pieces of rock or broken brick. The bottom should be connected with a drain-tile to carry the surplus water quickly to a lower level. About a foot of cow-manure, preferably rotted, should be spread over the broken rock and brick, and the excavation filled with heavy clay loam of sufficient depth to keep the surface when settled slightly lower than the surrounding level. To most soils in this region some form of lime should be added to neutralize any acidity that may occur. If there is a greater proportion of clay than loam in the soil a little pulverized sheep-manure, dried blood, or other quick-acting chemical fertilizer will provide available plant-food immediately and give the plants a better start.


In starting a rose-plantation, the stock may be dormant wood or growing plants in 3- or 4-inch pots. The plants may have been grown from cuttings on their own roots or budded or grafted on other stock. Plants on their own roots are equally good, cheaper to buy, and there is no danger of the stock plants making growth from the roots in place of the desired kind. Most roses in this region are grown on their own roots. Dormant roses may be set out either in fall or spring, using preferably one- or two-year-old plants. Spring is the most common season, but autumn-planting is practised by some and considered equally good, or even better by many successful growers. The plants are set in the ground 2 or 3 inches deeper than they originally grew, and if planted in autumn, earth is drawn up around the stem and the ground mulched with the most convenient material suitable for the pur-pose,—rotted manure, leaves, straw, pine needles, and the like. All broken roots are removed and the top cut back to three or four buds. Potted plants are started from cuttings taken in August, September, or October, rooted under glass and grown on during fall and winter to a 3- or 4-inch pot, hardened off in a coldframe, and set out when the ground is warm. For Teas and Per- petuals, the potted plants usually give more bloom the first season and are equally good the following years. There is less labor in planting and the potted stock is no more expensive than dormant material. In setting, the plants are removed from the pots with the soil intact, placed a little deeper than the ground-level, and watered. A frequent and serious error is made in setting the plants too close. They must have plenty of room for light and air. The Baby Ramblers should have about 18 inches apart; other dwarf roses about 2 feet; climbers 4 feet. The surface is cultivated a few times, and at the beginning of hot summer weather the ground is given a thorough mulch, preferably of rotted manure. This feature is probably the most important operation in making a success of monthly roses in this region. Cultivation and mulching should be continued each year, and about every fifth season Tea and Perpetual roses should be lifted and reset after the ground has been thoroughly shaped.


Roses are pruned in the dormant season, mainly in the early spring, and the method varies somewhat with the different types, as well as individual plants within the types. The severity of the preceding winter often governs the amount of pruning, especially with Teas. Plants are sometimes frozen to the ground unless winter protection is given, when it is necessary to remove practically all of the top. All dead wood should be removed. As a general rule, uninjured plants of Teas should be pruned more severely than others. The stronger the growth the smaller the proportion of wood to be removed. Climbers, rugosa, sweetbrier, and wild roses need only enough to keep the plants in shape and to the desired size. In pruning rose-hedges, a special effort should be made to keep the base as full of new growth as possible. H. C. Irish.

Roses in California. (Fig. 3481.)

In many localities in California the rose attains a striking and perhaps unique perfection. That this perfection is not general throughout the state is partially owing to adverse conditions, such as great range of temperature during each twenty-four hours, heavy fogs at critical periods, and the like, but as a rule, failure in whole or in part is due to the lack of intelligent treatment. In the present article, the conditions in southern California are specially in mind, but the discussion will apply, in the main, to other parts of the state.

The chief obstacle to successful rose-culture in California is the attempt to produce blooms every day of the year. Although this practice is quite an impossibility with any rose, the evil is still persisted in by ninety-nine in every hundred possessors of a garden. While roses are grown in great profusion in Los Angeles, few, if any, do as well here as in Pasadena, which, although only 9 miles distant, has the advantage of being several hundred feet higher than Los Angeles, and therefore less subject to fog or great range in daily temperature. In some places a certain few roses will produce an astonishingly fine crop of bloom, when but a mile or two distant, with no change of soil and very slight difference in altitude, they will be utterly worthless; while a like number of other varieties will give as good returns as those first mentioned.

Many roses do fairly well everywhere, and among these Duchesse de Brabant more nearly produces a continuous crop of blossoms than any other. For this reason it stands in a class by itself and is not considered in the appended list of the best dozen roses for southern California, though every one should grow at least one bush of this variety. Along with the Duchesse might well be placed the Polyantha, Mademoiselle Cecil Brunner, and the climbers Cherokee, Banksia, Ophire, (or Gold of Ophir), Beauty of Glazenwood or Fortune's Double Yellow. All these produce most wonderful crops, but none more so than the last mentioned, which in favored regions produces a wealth of flowers simply dazzling to behold. Many well-known Californian writers assert that Gold of Ophir and Beauty of Glazenwood are one and the same rose, but this is not the case. Gold of Ophir was here for many years before the other made its appearance, and some of the original plants are still growing on many of the homesteads of Los Angeles and vicinity.

All the roses named thus far are worthy of a place in any garden. One of the chief causes of failure by the average amateur is the lack of an intelligent knowledge of the plant's first requirement—recurring periods of absolute rest. These necessary resting-periods are best secured by the withholding of the water-supply. Most amateurs, and a larger part of self-styled "gardeners," persist, against all rules of common sense, in planting roses either in the lawn or in mixed borders with other plants. In either case, all but the roses require a constant watering. Having planted in this fashion, the grower has cast away all chances of first-class results. Rose-beds should never be made a feature in landscape gardening, as the plants when dormant and judiciously pruned are unsightly objects at best. The most obscure spot obtainable with the proper exposure is the place to grow flowers. To obtain the best results the rose requires the same amount of rest here that it secures where the winter season leaves the grower no alternative. But the same amount of rest may here be given semi-annually, with equally good and perhaps better results than is possible with one long annual period of inactivity.

Climate is the all-important feature of rose-culture in California, and if that is satisfactory the character of the soil makes little difference. The dry summer air is a serious drawback to the growth of many roses, there being few places where Moss roses thrive, and these must be grown in whole or partial shade. Niphe- tos and Marechal Niel are good examples of roses requiring partial shade if good results are desired. Many localities cannot grow the two last mentioned, or such as Perle des Jardins, Meteor, Catherine Mermet, Madame Francisca Kruger, Reine Marie Henriette, and many others, on account of mildew. Even among varieties whose buds are immune, it is often impossible to get foliage unaffected. Injudicious watering is more largely to blame for these unfavorable conditions than any other agency. Laurette is a rose which often produces the only perfect flowers to be found among a hundred varieties, and this is particularly the case in places visited by heavy frosts, Laurette remaining unscathed while all others are more or less blasted. The great rose of the eastern United States, American Beauty, is almost a complete failure here and is not worth growing except in a very few well- favored gardens, and even then it is far from being perfect.

Persons in the southern end of the state and inland sections have yet to learn that fine roses may be grown in summer either in light or heavy shade.

Many roses, also, are of little value in California unless budded or grafted. Of this class Marechal Niel is the most striking example. Examples may be found where this rose has thrived unusually on its own roots, but such cases are marked exceptions. Some persons maintain that all roses are best on their own roots, but such opinions are easily refuted by consulting any of our veteran rosarians. The best roses are root-grafted, but of course this procedure is too expensive for the general nurseryman, and the bulk of the local stock is budded on Manetti or Maiden's Blush, though the Dog rose (Rosa canina) and even the Banksia are often used. Those roses grown on their own roots are usually propagated from hardwood cuttings, grown out-of-doors, and December is usually the best month, although they have been successfully rooted from October to March, according to the variety.

Rust bothers but little; likewise scale, although in many neglected gardens the bush and climbers alike may be found covered with both the rose-scale and the red scale of the orange. Fuller's rose-beetle is a nuisance only in small areas, but green-aphis is a pest in winter and spring. La France for many years was the leading rose in California and grew well, budded or on its own roots, in almost any locality, but is now rapidly becoming a thing of the past, though it can never be wholly discarded, for it is still, in a few gardens, the queen of the family; its involuntary retirement from our rose- gardens is due entirely to a "die back" (anthracnose), which affects many other plants than the rose, but seems to have a special liking for La France. Thus far no cure has been found.

(1) A list of the best dozen bush roses and the best half- dozen climbing sorts, as agreed upon by many experts within a range of 20 miles of Los Angeles, is as follows:

Bush roses.—Frau Karl Druschki, Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, Madame Abel Chatenay, Heinrich Munch (Pink Drusehki), The Lyon, William Shean, Magna Charta, Ulrich Brunner, Edward Mawley, General MacArthur, Lady Hillingdon, Duchess of Wellington.

Climbing sorts.—Climbing Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, Lamarque, Climbing Souv. of Wootton, Francois Crousse, Duchesse de Auerstadt, Reve d'Or. Outside this list are members of widely divergent classes which should find a place in every large garden, such as the Banksias, the three Cherokees, and both the bush and the climbing Cecile Brunner.

(2) Following are lists of a dozen varieties each of the different recognized standards of color of roses which have proved best adapted to southern California conditions:

White: White La France, Frau Karl Druschki, Ivory, Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, Mabel Morrison, Molly Sharman-Crawford, Niphetos, Perle von Godesburg, The Bride, The Queen, White Killarney, Maman Cochet. Pink: Belle Siebrecht, Betty, Clara Watson, Killarney, Madame Abel Chatenay, Madame Leon Pain, Mlle. Cecile Brunner, Paul Neyron, Maman Cochet, Souv. du President Carnot, The Lyon, William Shean. Red: Agrippina, American Beauty, Edward Mawley, General Jacqueminot, General MacArthur, Hugh Dickson, J. B. Clark, Jonkheer J. L. Mock, Lady Battersea, Magna Charta, Papa Gontier, Ulrich Brunner. Yellow: Duchess of Wellington, Franz Dee- gen, George C. Waud, Harry Kirk, Lady Hillingdon, Marie Van Houtte, Mrs. Aaron Ward, Mrs. A. R. Waddell, Perle des Jardins, Rayon d'Or, Soleil d'Or, Sunburst.

Climbing roses.—White: Devoniensis, Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, White Mamam Cochet, Madame Alfred Carriere, White Banksia, White Cherokee. Pink: Belle Siebrecht, Cecile Brunner, Caroline Testout, Dorothy Perkins, Gainsborough, Pink Cherokee, Tausendschon. Red: Papa Gontier, Souvenir of Wootton, Crimson Rambler, Francois Crousse, Red Cherokee (Ramona), Reine Marie Henriette, Reine Olga de Wurtemburg. Yellow: Beauty of Glazenwood, Celine Forestier, Duchesse de Auerstadt, Marechal Niel, Reve d'Or, William Allen Richardson, Yellow Banksia. Sunset and Copper: Mrs. A. R. Waddell, Lady Hillingdon, Duchess of Wellington, Juliet, Sunburst, Mrs. Edouard Herriot, Los Angeles.

(3) Following are roses suitable to California as a whole (John Gill): General MacArthur, Madame Caroline Testout, Lady Hillingdon, Juliet, George Dickson, Mrs. Aaron Ward, Radiance, Mad. Abel Chatenay, Miss Kate Moulton, Ulrich Brunner, Ophelia, Mlle. Cecil Brunner, Frau Karl Druschki, Laurent Carle, Irish Elegance, Lady Perrie, Miss Cynthia Forde, Sunburst, Betty, My Maryland, White Maman Cochet, Rayon d'Or, George Arends, Mad. E. Harriot.

Climbers.—Climbing Testout, Climbing Belle Siebrecht, Climbing Cecile Brunner, Francois Crousse, Gainsborough, Reve d'Or, Climbing Papa Gontier, Climbing White Cochet, Caroline Goodrich, Climbing Sunburst, Madame Alfred Carriere, Duchesse de Auerstadt. Ernest Braunton

The cultivation of roses under glass.

The growing of roses for cut-flowers is the largest item in the greenhouse industry of America at the present time, and the total sales amount to many millions of dollars annually. The rose industry is the backbone of the florist business. With the introduction of varieties that are prolific bloomers, roses have reached a selling value which puts them in reach of the purse of the masses of the people, and the demand is unlimited. Exhibitions have been a factor in educating the public to know roses and in bringing about their present popularity.

The industry is widespread and embraces every section of the country. Southern California grows good roses for the markets in the open field and better quality under glass. In the dry central portion of the West where roses were once considered an impossibility, they are now grown with good success. The climate of the eastern part of the United States seems particularly well adapted to roses, and this section has been considered the home of the greenhouse rose industry. However, careful knowledge of climatic conditions and proper treatment will produce good roses in almost any locality which is favored with weather cool enough to allow proper time for maturity of the flowering stems which, if forced into flower by excessive heat, do not, in warm climates, produce the quality of bloom that is obtainable where more time can be given their development by lower temperatures.

Types of rose-houses (Figs. 3482, 3483).

There are two distinct types of greenhouse construction used by the large commercial rose-growers. The single house has the approval of many, while the connected houses, or ridge-and-furrow sections, are favored by others, because of the smaller expense of construction, the lower cost of heating owing to the absence of outside walls, and the ease of superintend-ence. Advantages of the single house are its better control, more light, and less trouble with snow and ice, the latter being a serious consideration in the maintenance of the connected houses.

The single house is constructed with iron frame and concrete sides and built even span or two-thirds span to the south. Houses strong and permanent, with good ample ventilation and ample light seem to be the essentials of construction. With connected houses, the essential factor in addition to these is to have the gutter at least 12 feet from the ground, which almost entirely overcomes the effect of shade which the gutter casts by diffusing this over a larger area. A heating-pipe beneath the iron gutter to assist in melting snow and ice is a necessity.

The size of houses to be preferred is largely a question of opinion, but there are certain factors which must not be overlooked. The wide house must necessarily be high, and a house that is high is likely to be lacking in humidity, and the plants consequently will suffer. This seems to be the only objection of consequence to the wide single house. From 40 to 60 feet is the normal width and should be satisfactory, and the length is controlled by the capital of the owner or the natural lay of the land. Houses are workable with economy up to 1,000 feet provided, naturally, with crosswalks at least every 300 feet to save steps for employees. The width of connecting houses should be from 36 to 44 feet, and the length as given also applies to these connecting houses.

Beds and benches.

There is but small connection between the bed or bench and the house containing them, except that in planning new construction the approved plan is to have a walk next to the outside walls and, if the proper width house is selected, this can be accomplished without varying the width of walks and beds or benches. As the modern house is relatively high at the plate or eave, either bed or bench may be used at the discretion of the builder. The construction of the bench is simple, the essential point being durability; this is secured by using cypress lumber and double cross- pieces, which enables the builder to put nails back a short distance into the bottom board and prevents the breaking of the bench at the joint, as the bottoms usually decay first at the ends of the boards. Benches not over 24 inches to the bottom from the ground surface are to be preferred, being easier to work, as the larger part of the actual labor is on the plant itself, at least 12 inches above the bench surface and, if the bench is higher, the labor is correspondingly harder. Ample drainage must be provided by leaving cracks between bottom boards from 1/4 to 1/2 inch and using 6-inch width boards. The concrete bench for rose-growing is in the experimental stage and has not as yet shown superiority.

The solid bed, so called, is not in reality solid, except as to side walls. Ample drainage of the ground itself is needed, if solid beds are to be built. If the soil is naturally gravelly, the making of solid beds is simple. If the soil is of heavy clay texture, the building of the solid bed necessitates not only under-draining the surface, but the supplying of coarse gravel or ashes through which the water from the soil may escape to the permanent drain-tiles. These drain- tiles should be laid crossways of the house every 100 feet, and the smaller tile running lengthwise under each bed should empty into these larger cross-tiles. Sides of solid beds are best built with concrete which can be made as thin as 2 1/2 inches at the top, and the outsides can be made perpendicular. The inside should be on an angle, and a base width of 6 inches with the flare on the inside will give the wall a purchase on the soil under the bed and hold it in place. Solid beds are cheaper of construction, provided the land is naturally well-drained. They are more expensive when much ashes or gravel must te used. There is another type of solid bed made by using plank nailed to posts for siding which is just as good, but not durable. The bed built by laying broken stone, to serve as drainage, and which elevates the bed to a better working level, is a permanent and satisfactory one, but natural conditions as to stone make this impracticable under usual conditions. Results as to roses grown on raised tables or benches and on solid beds vary very little. The raised bench having the heating-pipe beneath it seems to produce better in the winter months. The solid bed having a cooler soil and a greater rooting depth will give a better quality in the summer months. On the yearly average there is small difference in quantity and quality of product, and the question of bed or bench must be settled by the opinion of the owner and the questions of cost and permanence.


In close connection with houses and beds is the question of heating. It is a universally recognized fact that steam heat is essential to the growing of good roses. No attempt will be made to explain boilers and the piping of the houses, except to say that sufficient steam-pipes must be supplied to carry normal temperature in the coldest possible weather, that such pipes should be evenly distributed over the area inclosed, and that the heat should not be overhead, but on the level with or below the level at which the plants are set. The use of steam is due to the fact that quick heat in rose-houses is necessary. The change that comes with the dropping of the sun in the fall and winter must be counteracted by a quick steam-service to prevent a chilling of the plants. A pipe or two in all big houses in summer nights prevents the condensation of moisture on the plants and means the difference between success and failure. Hot-water heat is more uniform than steam, but loses because steam can be obtained on much shorter notice. The use of a hot-water system in conjunction with steam is admirable, and in large establishments is to be recommended. The gentle warmth radiating from the hot-water pipes during the day is not detrimental and enables the grower to use more ventilation, which is a distinct benefit.

Soils for roses.

Soils for rose-culture should be of clay body, but have enough of more friable ingredients to pulverize readily. The grower usually chooses land for the building of commercial rose-houses which has on it the character of soil required. Good heavy clay turf is the material from which to form the compost for rose soil. The fiber of the turf as it decays gives the humus required and leaves the soil open, porous, and in good condition for root-action. Winter-preparation is to be preferred, and the freshly prepared compost which is not over six months old is in ideal condition. Piling alternate layers of soil and cow-manure, using two parts of good heavy clay turf to one part of cow-manure, makes an ideal rose soil. Horse-manure may be used with good results, or a mixture of the two, but cow-manure has the preference.

Lowland soil usually has the body and fiber that is needed, and soil which is part of the year under water has been found to be free from eel-worm or nematode,which attacks the rose roots; this troublesome pest often infests the soil of the uplands. The meadow soil should be plowed into ridges in the fall and hauled on frozen ground to the place where it is to be composted. The thorough freezing of the soil is considered beneficial as it tends to make it more friable. The compost should be worked over when the frost has gotten out, and after settling will be ready to use when needed. A point should be made to lay the soil-compost near the sec-tion where needed in order to save labor in handling when filling the houses.

Greenhouse propagation of roses.

Roses are propagated in two ways for greenhouse growing. These two methods will be discussed separately, considering roses on their own roots before taking up grafted roses.

The usual type of wood selected for own root cuttings is the strong non-flowering growths. These are commonly known as blind-wood cuttings, but experiment has shown that these growths, if stopped or pinched, as the process is called, can be made to flower, which refutes the statement that such growths are blind, and from these growths flowering plants are produced, which shows clearly that the flowering ability is present. Whether varieties run out by constant use of this type of cutting is an open question which only long-continued experiment can answer, but observation has shown that certain varieties, if propagated from this surplus, or so-called blind growths, will tend to reproduce more of that growth in proportion and to lessen the production of strong flowering wood. The problem seems to be to get into the cutting a sufficient number of dormant eyes to provide good strong flowering growth, and the cutting of this type taken to the heel or union of the shoot with the flowering stem will have such dormant eyes and make a stronger, more vigorous, better producing plant than the cutting which consists of the top few eyes from a growth of this character.

The cutting of flowering stems is usually heavier than the blind-wood cutting, and the wood should be hard or mature enough to allow clean cuts to be made without injury to bark or pith. When the bud shows color is the proper stage of development for the propagation of flowering wood. Two or three eyes should be used, making a clean cut just below the eye and removing the lower leaf; trim back the top leaves at least one-half, and the cutting is ready for the propa- gating-bed. Cuttings should not be stood in water, but kept sprinkled to prevent wilting.

The propagating-bed should have ample drainage, which can be secured by using coarse ashes for the bottom half of the bed. Five-inch side boards with ashes for drainage and above it 2 1/2 inches of good clean sand constitute a workable propagating medium. Rose-cuttings can be rooted with good success in screened soft coal-ashes, if sand is not available, but extra care must be taken to prevent breaking off the roots in taking the cutting from the ashes, when ready for potting. Distance in the propagating-bed depends on the variety. The leaves should not be allowed to overlap and thus invite fungus. With the heating- pipes beneath the bench, and a uniform temperature of 58° to 60° in the sand and 54° to 60° overhead, the cut- tings should be rooted and ready to pot in about four weeks. Do not allow the cutting to begin growth in sand, which it will if not potted when the roots have started. Be sure that clean pots are provided, and the 2 1/4-inch size is ample for the newly rooted cuttings. Pot carefully so that the tender roots are not broken or bruised and be sure that some soil is between the cutting and the pot. Water carefully and provide shade for the first few days until the cutting has recovered from the check of moving. Make sure that all the soil is thoroughly moistened, but do not over-water it. Light sprinklings are all that will be required until the roots show activity, which can be ascertained by knocking the plant and ball of soil carefully from the pot, taking care not to break the ball of soil. As the plant begins to grow, remove all shade and keep the plant growing. It will require more water with the increase in foliage. When the plant fills the pot nicely with roots, repot into a larger pot,—the 3-inch size will be ample for its requirements for the next six weeks. Keep the young plants clean and growing, using the same treatment as for plants on the bench for the various insects and fungi. Shift into larger pots, if necessary, but keep them growing.

Grafted roses are very distinct in handling from the own-root plants. It is best to start with strong-rooted Manetti stock, which rose species has been chosen for its strength of growth and the freedom with which the cions unite with it. Manetti is grown from hardwood cuttings taken during the winter months, and which are planted in early spring in the open field. These are kept growing rapidly throughout the summer, are dug in the fall and are ready when potted for grafting. Manetti should be disbudded or suckered, which means the removal, so far as is possible, of all eyes which are below the point at which the graft is to be made. In growing Manetti, deep planting is advisable as the stem which has been under ground all summer, cuts better and makes a better union than the harder stem which has been exposed. Manetti varies very little with the section, but varies with the method of growing and grading. The deep-planted, well-graded Manetti, whether English-, French-, Dutch-or American-grown, is equally valuable and serviceable, but the great variation in the growing and handling has caused the erroneous opinion that Manetti from certain sections is superior. Labor values alone prevent the American grower from producing his own Manetti, but irrigation is necessary in our climate. Having pencil-size Manetti,—being for best work about the thickness of a lead-pencil,— the process of grafting is simple. A cut is made as close to the pot-level as possible diagonally across the Manetti. The cion is cut on the same slant and is tied to the stock with raffia fiber (Fig. 3484). Raffia is used because it decays and does not need to be cut away as will be necessary with string, and it covers the union more completely. The union of the cambium layer is the- essential point, and if the cion is not equal in size to the stock, one should be sure of a perfect union on one side. The rapid flow of sap which occurs when the new grafted plant is put into the case covers the union and growth begins. In a temperature from 76° to 78° the first week and from 70° to 72° the two succeeding weeks, with careful ventilation and shade from hot sun, the union should be perfect and the young plant ready to be taken into the air and light when hardened sufficiently by increasing these gradually. The grafting-case is usually constructed by having sufficient steam-pipes beneath it to maintain the temperature—a miniature greenhouse.

The advantages of grafted roses over those grown on their own roots are: a stronger root-action, a more rapid- growing plant, and a root-system that will be immune to eel-worm or nematode. Experiments conducted by the Illinois Experiment Station have proved that the production from grafted roses is sufficiently larger to warrant the use of grafted plants. There may be a connection between the use of flowering wood for grafting and increased production, as all cions for grafting purposes should be from selected flowering wood. There is also a difference in varieties and a few are superior on their own roots. It has been generally stated that all yellow or yellow-tinted roses are better on their own roots, but results contradict this statement.

The after-care of the grafted plant varies little from the care of own-root plants. One should be sure to remove any Manetti suckers that appear, cutting close to the stock, and mulch once in small pots before shifting into larger, using for this mulch a compost of good rose-soil with a heavy sprinkling of bone-meal added. Repotting will furnish all the feed necessary, but the top mulch will often keep the plant growing and economize room. Grafted plants come into bud and flower early. The blooms should be kept cut off.

General cultivation, diseases and insect pests.

Having good, clean, thrifty, young plants in 3- or 4- inch pots and a compost soil in the benches or beds, one is ready for planting. The correct spacing is about 12 by 18 inches or 14 by 16 inches; there is some difference in varieties, but the average is about as stated. Planting should be deep enough to cover the union by an inch or more with grafted plants and yet away from the bottom of the bench. Plant firmly and water thoroughly. Growth will soon begin. Keep the plants clean from red-spider by thorough and consistent syringing of the under sides of the leaves with water under pressure. Red-spider is an insect which multiplies rapidly when favored by a dry warm atmosphere, and as its sustenance is the foliage of the plant, it must be eradicated.

Stakes should be set and the plants tied to the stake as soon as they have become established and growth has begun. Wires should be run above the bench, tying the stake made of heavy wire to this 3 feet from the soil-level. In tying the stake to the wire use string, and raffia for tying plants to the stake.

The general care of a rose-house consists in keeping the house properly ventilated, heated and watered, in addition to keeping the plants clean from insects and fungi, and the cutting of the flowers. Ventilation should be given more attention than any other of these problems. How properly to ventilate a rose-house is dependent upon the condition of the plants and the weather. It is the custom to ventilate freely on bright sunny days, and to guard the plants against draughts, which invites mildew. To obtain the maximum amount of growth, it is advisable to allow the temperature to go above the normal 70° day temperature in bright weather, giving ventilation at the same time, but not sufficient materially to lower the house-temperature. Careful ventilation at night in the summer, and the keeping of a certain amount of fire-heat to dispel dampness does away with black-spot, which disease of the foliage is favored by the condensation of dew or moisture on the plants during the night. Just how to check black-spot is the hardest problem of the rose-grower. Increased temperature with some quick-acting fertilizer and allowing the house to run warm on bright days will often check the disease by inducing quick growth and rapid sap-circulation, giving the plant the new foliage to replace that lost. When the black-spot is persistent, pruning back the plant and allowing it to start again with clean foliage may be the only way of eradication. Black- spot occurs on the Hybrid Tea varieties and, as few pure Tea roses are grown, practically all greenhouse varieties are subject to this serious fungus. Spraying with copper solutions will help to a certain extent in checking it. See the special discussion of this and other diseases, page 3019. The question of temperature is dependent upon the variety grown, but the normal is 60° at night, 70° on bright days, 65° on dark days.

Mildew is a fungus which also attacks the foliage, giving it a dusty appearance and curling the leaf. It also appears on the buds, and, if not controlled, will ruin an entire house. It spreads rapidly when once established. Dusting the plants with flowers of sulfur will kill the fungus if applied on bright days, but fumes from the evaporation of the flowers of sulfur on the steam-pipes will eradicate it much more effectively. Mildew is induced by poor ventilation. Plants should be so grown that the foliage, by constant fresh air, is kept hard and mildew-resisting. A draught from a door or broken glass will bring mildew. When the first sign appears, kill the fungus and prevent it from spreading.

The rose-midge (Neocerata rhodophaga) is the worst pest which the rose-grower has to combat, but fortunately this insect has been known to exist only in a few localities, and, to a considerable extent, only in the rose-growing section near Chicago. It is microscopic and is recognized first by its effect. The female deposits its eggs beneath the sepals of the flower-bud or between the folded leaves of the leaf-bud. The egg period is two days, and the maggots, as soon as hatched, begin to attack the buds. The maggots reach maturity in seven days and then drop to the ground where they pupate and the adult fly emerges six weeks later. As the damage to the plant is done by the maggot which eats the petals, the work of the midge does not affect the growth of the plant, but the buds fail to develop, usually dropping off after being attacked by the maggots. Overgrown plants that do not flower are indications of its presence. The seriousness of the pest is apparent and no precaution is too great to prevent the rose-midge from getting a foothold. Buy plants that are grown in sections not affected. Keep the houses absolutely free from rubbish, both outside and under the benches. If the work of the insect is apparent, get rid of plants and soil in the house and grow other crops for a season, and start afresh, which is the safest and best plan. See the specialist's account by Crosby, on p. 3018.

The rose is subject to the attack of a nema- tode, or eel-worm, which infests the roots. The use of Manetti for grafting purposes has, to a large extent, relieved the rose-grower of this trouble, for the Manetti root does not suffer from the attack of nematodes; the use of lowland soil is also a safeguard. Sterilization by means of steam will render soil safe and its usefulness is not impaired, but this is, as a rule, unnecessary.

Rose-galls are a bacterial disease which cause growths on the plants, varying in size, and usually brown in color. These appear at the joints or where cuts have been made. Remove these at once and do not cut them open with a knife used for cutting flowers, because the infection can be carried to the other plants in this manner. Cut off the affected branch and burn it.

Thrip is an insect which attacks the leaves and petals. It is small and it work usually can be recognized by the white lines on dark-colored flowers, showing where the surface has been eaten. Green-fly is a sucking insect which attacks the new growths. Both can be readily killed by the evaporation of nicotine preparations upon the steam-pipes, this having almost entirely replaced the burning of tobacco-stems.

Feeding the plants is accomplished by top-mulching, or by liquid fertilizer, or by using both. Aside from bone-tankage, few commercial fertilizers are in use, cow-manure, well-rotted, clear or mixed with well- rotted horse-manure, being more generally used. These manures in liquid form may be used to advantage. Feed light and often is the rule when plants are well established.

Watering depends on crop-condition. Water copiously when the plants are coming into bearing. Water less when the crop is being cut, and sparingly after the crop is cut and before the new growth starts.

The question of humidity in the house is a serious one with the wide, large houses, and where the atmosphere lacks moisture the growths will be hard-wooded and the plants will not be prolific. It is safe to say that a house with all cement walks fails to grow good roses for lack of humidity, and the gravel or ash walk will do much toward furnishing the atmosphere the needed moisture.


Varieties to grow depend largely on the market to which the grower caters. There are two types of green-house roses: those which are at their best in the warm summer months, and those which are at their best in cooler weather.

The varieties best suited for summer cutting are My Maryland and its sports, Kaiserin Augusta victoria, Francis Scott Key and Mrs. Aaron Ward.

For general use, the best varieties are Killarney and its sports, which are numerous, and of which Double White Killarney, Killarney Brilliant. White Killarney, and Killarney Queen are such notable examples that they must be mentioned; Ophelia, Mrs. Aaron Ward, Mrs. George Shawyer, Hoosier Beauty, Hadley, Milady, Richmond, Radiance, Lady Alice Stanley, Jonkheer J. L. Mock, Sunburst, Mrs. Charles Russell, American Beauty, and the Polyantha roses—Cecile Brunner, Perle d'Or, and George Elgar, which are widely used for corsage bouquets and decorative work. Mrs. Aaron Ward, Double White Killarney, Mrs. George Shawyer, Killarney Brilliant, and Ophelia are the best varieties for cutting continuously for the entire year. Of these varieties mentioned, American Beauty, Mrs. George Shawyer, Radiance, Lady Alice Stanley, and Sunburst are better grown upon their own roots, while the balance of the varieties are superior when grafted on manetti. Mrs. W. C. Whitney was formerly grown as a forcing rose.

Cutting the flowers.

Proper care and cutting of the flowers has as much to do with financial success in the rose industry as the proper growing of the plants. Just when flowers are mature enough to be cut is a matter of variety to a considerable extent. Those varieties which do not have many petals should be cut in the bud, while many of the very double varieties, such as Francis Scott Key and Mrs. Charles Russell, should be allowed partly to expand before being taken from the plant. How much wood to leave when cutting the flowers is also a question of variety to a certain degree, but as a rule two good eyes are sufficient. Certain varieties which naturally throw strong flowering growth from the main stems or hard wood can be cut to one eye from good-sized plants. There is a tendency of plants to increase in size and become awkward to handle if much growth is left in cutting, and production from large overgrown plants is as a rule no greater than from plants more closely headed in by carefully cutting the flowers.

It is customary with some growers to "pinch" all flowering shoots when the bud has reached the size of a pea, and this removal of the bud and first leaf causes a new flowering growth and gives a longer stem, as the flower is cut back to the proper place in the older growth. This method of pinching allows the grower to control the time of maturity of the crop very accurately, eight weeks in the early winter months and seven weeks in February and March being the necessary time for the maturity of the new flowering shoot. This varies a few days with the character of the growth when the pinching is done; those shoots nearer maturity will require less time than the softer or more immature growths. There is also a slight difference in varieties as to the time required to mature the shoot and flower. Thus pinching allows the grower to bring in a crop at the holiday season and produce flowers for exhibition use.

The stronger and more vigorous the growth pinched, the better the quality of the resultant flower and by selection of strong heavy flowering growths and by pinching and careful timing, the roses for exhibition purposes are produced.

When flowers are cut they should at once be placed in water and kept at a temperature from 38° to 42° for several hours to harden them. The stems and flowers fill with water and are then in a condition to be graded. The American Rose Society has established a grading standard to which the leading growers adhere in prepar- ing the product for market. Length of stem is the basis, but quality and substance of bud should be in proportion to length of stem, and a poor quality flower on a large stem on the open market will by no means command the price of a good flower on a stem of the same length. In grading, keep the flowers uniform in length of stem and quality.

Marketing cut roses.

There are three methods of marketing cut roses, viz.: retailing direct to the consumer; supplying flower shops direct; and the shipment of the product to the commission stores which supply the large city florists. It is of first importance to have the product reach the consumer fresh, well hardened, and not too open, for the demand for open flowers is limited. Careful packing for the wholesale market necessitates wooden boxes with cross cleats to hold the roses from moving about in the box, which bruises the flowers. Wooden boxes allow the use of ice to keep the flowers in condition for sale. Heavy waxed paper between the layers of flowers in the boxes aids in handling them conveniently. Any precaution taken to insure the product reaching the consumer in perfect condition is a paying investment, for a good product has little value when bruised and in poor condition.

The sale of flowers direct to the consumer by the grower is becoming greater every year, many of the leading florists operating their own ranges of glass and using the product in their own store. The demand from the large cities where this is not possible to any great extent is increasing yearly. Returns from money invested is in fair proportion to the money earned by investments in any well-conducted line of production, but is dependent upon the skill of the grower and the business-like conduct of the enterprise. The risk of handling a perishable product and the property risk also is heavy, owing to wind, hail, snow, and ice. Deterioration is also heavy because of the excessive humidity necessary to good culture. Rose-growing is an industry catering to the demand for a luxury, and the path to profit is often a thorny one. W. R. Pierson.

Rose insects.

Rose Aphis (Macrosiphum rosae).—Greenish or pinkish plant- lice about one-twelfth inch in length that cluster in great numbers on the tender tips and buds, stunting the growth and injuring the bloom; injurious both in the open and on roses grown under glass. The insect hibernates in the egg stage in the North, but in the South breeding continues throughout the winter. The eggs hatch as the buds are bursting. The aphids of the first generation are wingless as are also a large proportion of the succeeding broods, but winged forms are produced from time to time which serve to disseminate the species. The insects multiply with great rapidity, each female being capable of producing thirty to forty-five young in the course of her life. A generation is completed in less than a month.

Treatment.—Spray with nicotine sulfate (containing 40 per cent nicotine), one part in 800 parts of water—about one teaspoonful in two gallons of water. The efficiency of this solution is increased by the addition of a small amount of soap. Good results may be obtained by thorough spraying with whale-oil soap, or any good soap, one pound in eight or ten gallons of water. It is sometimes a good plan to dip the buds and tips of the branches in a dish nearly full of the solution.

Small Green Rose Aphis (Myzus rosarum).—A green plant- louse much smaller than the preceding; more troublesome in greenhouses than in the open.

Treatment.—Same as for the rose aphis (above).

American Rose Slug (Endelomyia rousae).—Greenish or yellowish , larvae that skeletonize the upper surface of the leaves. The eggs are laid in the tissue of the leaves by a shining black four-winged fly.

Bristly Rose Slug (Cladius pectinicornis).—Yellowish or greenish, more or leas bristly larvae about 2/5inch in length that skeletonize the leaves when young but later eat out holes in the leaf, often leaving only the larger veins. In the North there are three generations annually, the cocoons of the summer brood being placed on the leaves or twigs, those of the winter brood on the ground. The eggs of this species are inserted in the petiole of the leaves by the parent fly which very closely resembles the preceding.

Coiled Rose Slug (Emphytus cinctus).—Larvae about 3/4 inch in length that feed on the edge of the leaf with the body coiled beneath it. The larva is metallic green spotted with white above, grayish white beneath; head orange; first segment of the thorax blue and the last two gray. Pupation takes place in the pith of a dead twig.

Treatment for rose slugs.—Arsenate of lead, two pounds in fifty gallons of water or one ounce in 1 1/2 gallons is an effective spray, but if applied too freely may leave a wnitish deposit on the foliage. Hellebore,one ounce in two or three gallons of water, or used in the dry form diluted with double its weight of powdered plaster or cheap flour, is also effective. Rose slugs may also be killed with the nicotine solution as recommended for the rose aphis.

Rose Leap-Hopper (Typhlocyba rosae).—A small nearly white leaf-hopper, feeding on the under side of the leaves, extracting the juices and causing the leaves to turn yellowish. The insect spends the winter as eggs which are inserted in the bark.

Treatment.—This leaf-hopper may be controlled by thorough spraying of the under side of the leaves with nicotine solution as recommended for the rose aphis.

Rose Leaf-roller (Archips rosaceana).—Black-headed olive- green caterpillars, about 3/4 inch in length when mature, that roll and web together the leaves on which they feed. They become full (crown in about a month and transform to dark brown pupae within the rolled leaves. In two or three weeks the light brownish moths emerge and deposit their eggs on the leaves. There are two broods annually on roses grown in the open.

Treatment,—Spray the plants with arsenate of lead, two pounds in fifty gallons of water and make the application early in the season. In greenhouses close watch should be kept for the first appearance of the insect and the caterpillars destroyed before they gaan a foothold.

Rose Chafer (Macrodactylus subspinosus).—Long-legged un-gainly grayish brown beetles that swarm into the rose-garden, and devour the leaves, petals, and opening buds. The grubs from which these beetles develop feed on the roots of grasses in sandy soil only. In New York the beetles emerge from tne ground about the middle of June and disappear in about a month or six weeks.

Trtatment.—This is a difficult insect to control because the beetles will avoid feeding on foliage poisoned with an arsenical. They will, however, eat leaves sprayed with arsenate of lead sweetened with molasses. This method, however, cannot be relied upon to protect the plants when the beetles are numerous, for much damage will be done before the poison has had time to take effect. In the case of a few choice plants it is safer to protect them with mosquito-netting during the period when the beetles are most abundant.

Rose Midge (Neocerata rhodophaga).—Small whitish or pinkish maggots about one-fourteenth inch in length that infest opening buds, either killing them or causing the leaves and blossoms to be more or less deformed. The maggots become full grown in five to seven days, leave the buds and complete their transformation in the ground. In the summer the total life cycle is completed in about two weeks. As a rule the maggots are most troublesome during June and July. This insect is more injurious to roses grown under glass than in the open.

Treatment.—This is a difficult pest to eradicate once it has become well established in a greenhouse. Rotation with some other crop, such as violets, may be practised to advantage. Fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas in March, when the growth of the maggots is slow, will be found of value in killing the flies before egg- laying. Fumigation does not give so good results in the summer. It is a good plan to watch the plants carefully and to pick off and destroy all infested buds. See the florist's statement on this pest, page 3017.

Rose Scale (Aulacaspis rosae).—Snow-white nearly circular scales, about one-tenth inch in diameter, encrusting the branches. More troublesome when roses are grown in partial shade.

Treatment.—Spray with lime-sulfur solution, one gallon in eight gallons of water, while the plants are dormant. It may also be advisable to cut off the worst infested stems.

Rose Curculio (Rhynchiles bicolor),—A bright red snout-beetle, with black legs and snout, which appears on the rose-bushes early in June, eating holes into the unopened buds and puncturing the flower-stems. Some of the injured buds fail to open, while others have the petals riddled with holes. The grubs feed within the buds and young fruit and in late summer descend to the ground where they spend the winter as pupae.

Treatment.—In the garden continued hand-picking of the beetles will be found effective. In larger plantings, arsenate of lead, two pounds in fifty gallons of water—one ounce in one and one-half gallons—will destroy many of the beetles. As the beetles breed in the fruit of the wild rose, these plants should not be permitted to grow in the vicinity of the rose-garden.

Rose Slug-caterPillar (Euclea indetermina).—Occasionally in the South roses are subject to the attack of a caterpillar of striking appearance, about 3/4 inch in length, orange in color, and covered with tufts of spines.

Treatment,—In small plantings the caterpillars may be picked off by hand. While doing this work gloves should be worn, as the spies of the caterpillar emit an irritating flid. In larger plantings caterpillars can be controlled by spraying with arsenate of lead as recommended for the preceding.

Fuller's Robe Beetle (Aramigus fulleri).— Small grayish brown snout-beetles about 1/2 inch in length which are often very destructive to the foliage of roses grown in the greenhouse. The white, curved grubs, about 1/3 inch in length, burrow in the soil and feed upon the roots of the plant.

Treatment.—Persistent hand-picking should be practised to prevent the pest from gaining a foothold in the greenhouse.

Mealy Bugs.—These common greenhouse pests are sometimes injurious to rose plants. They may be controlled by syringing the plants with tobacco extract, or a stiff stream of water may be used to dislodge them.

Thrips.—Minute yellowish or orange insects about one-thirtieth inch in length which often injure tne opening blossom-buds of roses grown under glass. They may be controlled by spraying with tobacco extracts or by the use of a sweetened poison made according to the following formula: Water, twelve quarts; paris green, one tablespoonful; sugar, three pounds.

C. R. Crosby and M. D. Leonard.

Rose diseases.

Powdery Mildew, caused by the fungus Sphaerotheca pannosa, is one of the most common and injurious diseases of roses wherever they are grown. It is usually first noticed as grayish or whitish spots on the young leaves or shoots. Later, as the spots enlarge, they have a white, powdery appearance, a felt-like coating being formed, especially about the thorns. The young leaves, stems, and buds are dwarfed, curled, or variously deformed. Injured leaves soon drop, and growth and flower-production is seriously interfered with. Frequently the young buds themselves are attacked by the fungus, rendering the flowers worthless.

Treatment.—(1) Under glass. Thoroughly dusting with sulfur, or spraying with potassium sulfide, one ounce to three gallons of water, every ten days is often sufficient. Ammoniacal copper carbonate is also effective. Vaporized sulfur, produced either by boiling sulfur in a pot over an alcohol lamp, or by painting the heating- pipes with equal parts of sulfur, lime, and water, can be successfully used. No time should be lost in applying one of these treatments as soon as the mildew appears. Burned sulfur is likely to injure the plants. As one of the conditions favorable to the spread of mildew is dry, cool air, such as would come into the greenhouse from ventilation, broken glass, or open door, care should be taken to eliminate all drafts. (2) Out-of-doors. Outside, rose mildew can be controlled by dusting with finely ground sulfur. Frequent applications should be made, starting with the first appearance.

Black Spot, caused by the fungus Diplocarpon rosae (more commonly known as Actinonema rosae), is the most common and injurious disease aside from powdery mildew. Roses grown both out-of-doors and under glass are affected. The disease is most destructive during the summer. The more or less circular spots may attain a diameter of a centimeter or more, are of a black color, and are characterized by an irregularly fringed border. The spots occur on the upper surface of the leaf, and by confluence may involve the entire surface. Frequently the leaves become yellow, both in the invaded and uninvodea tissue. Defoliation soon takes place. Bushy sorts are more susceptible than the climbing varieties.

Treatment.—The fungus lives over winter on fallen leaves. Therefore, the source of spring infection will be eliminated by gathering and burning all the leaves either late in the fall or early in the spring before the buds expand. However, this is not sufficient entirely to control the disease. It is recommended that the plants be sprayed as soon as the disease becomes manifest, several applications at intervals of a week or ten days being sometimes necessary. Bordeaux mixture is said to be effective but is objectionable in that it coats the foliage. As a spray of ammoniacal copper carbonate is just as effective and lacks this objectionable feature ofbordeaux mixture, it is to be given the preference.

Rose Rust, caused by the fungus Phragmidium (several species), has been reported occurring on indoor and-of-door rosed. It is abundant on wild roses. The disease manifests itself in early spring as orange powdery patches on leaves, shoots, and buds. Frequently the greater portion of the surface of the leaf may be covered. The patches on the wood are often large, and distortion or curving of the part affected may occur. Toward autumn, black pustules are to be found on the under side of the leaves and on the stems, the latter of some varieties being killed to the ground.

Treatment.—-All fallen infected leaves and all diseased plants or plant parts should be collected and burned. Spraying with potassium sulfidc has been recommended, but further experimentation with this fungicide is desirable.

Stem Canker, caused by the fungus Coniothyrium wernsdorfiae (probably the same as C. fuckelii). Cankers are formed on the canes and branches, being characterized by a brown center with a black border, outside of which is a reddish zone.

Treatment.—Diseased canes should be cut and burned.

Crown-Gall, a bacterial disease caused by Bacterium tume- faciens. The disease occurs on plants grown in the open and under glass and is characterized by galls or tubercles being formed on the stems or roots, or both.

Treatment.—Removal or sterilization of the soil by steam, thorough disinfection of the benches, and so on, is the only remedy to be suggested. Rejection of all stock showing any indication of galls is advisable.

Downy Mildew is caused by the fungus Peronospora sparsa. It is particularly a disease of greenhouse roses, and is of somewhat rare occurrence. The disease is characterized by wilting and rapid killing of young leaves.

Treatment.—Dusting with sulfur is held to be effective against this disease.

                L. M. Massey.

The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.

A rose is a perennial flowering shrub or vine of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae, that contains over 100 species. The species form a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp thorns. Most are native to Asia, with smaller numbers of species native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Natives, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and fragrance. [1]

The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, with sharply toothed oval-shaped leaflets. The plants fleshy edible fruit is called a rose hip. Rose plants range in size from tiny, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 20 metres in height. Species from different parts of the world easily hybridize, which has given rise to the many types of garden roses.



Some representative rose species


The leaves of most species are 5–15 centimetres long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. The vast majority of roses are deciduous, but a few (particularly in Southeast Asia) are evergreen or nearly so.

The flowers of most species roses have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. The ovary is inferior, developing below the petals and sepals.

The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Rose species that produce open-faced flowers are attractive to pollinating bees and other insects, thus more apt to produce hips. Many of the domestic cultivars are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the Dog Rose (Rosa canina) and Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa), are very rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds.

While the sharp objects along a rose stem are commonly called "thorns", they are actually prickles — outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). True thorns, as produced by e.g. Citrus or Pyracantha, are modified stems, which always originate at a node and which have nodes and internodes along the length of the thorn itself. Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa and R. pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight spines, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses only have vestigial prickles that have no points.


Rose pruning, sometimes regarded as a horticultural art form, is largely dependent on the type of rose to be pruned, the reason for pruning, and the time of year it is at the time of the desired pruning.

Most Old Garden Roses of strict European heritage (albas, damasks, gallicas, etc.) are shrubs that bloom once yearly, in late spring or early summer, on two-year-old (or older) canes. As such, their pruning requirements are quite minimal, and are overall similar to any other analogous shrub, such as lilac or forsythia. Generally, only old, spindly canes should be pruned away, to make room for new canes. One-year-old canes should never be pruned because doing so will remove next year's flower buds. The shrubs can also be pruned back lightly, immediately after the blooms fade, to reduce the overall height or width of the plant. In general, pruning requirements for OGRs are much less laborious and regimented than for Modern hybrids.

Modern hybrids, including the hybrid teas, floribundas, grandifloras, modern miniatures, and English roses, have a complex genetic background that almost always includes China roses (R. chinensis). China roses were evergrowing, everblooming roses from humid subtropical regions that bloomed constantly on any new vegetative growth produced during the growing season. Their modern hybrid descendants exhibit similar habits: Unlike Old Garden Roses, modern hybrids bloom continuously (until stopped by frost) on any new canes produced during the growing season. They therefore require pruning away of any spent flowering stem, in order to divert the plant's energy into producing new growth and thence new flowers.

Additionally, Modern Hybrids planted in cold-winter climates will almost universally require a "hard" annual pruning (reducing all canes to 8"–12" in height) in early spring. Again, because of their complex China rose background, Modern Hybrids are typically not as cold-hardy as European OGRs, and low winter temperatures often desiccate or kill exposed canes. In spring, if left unpruned, these damanged canes will often die back all the way to the shrub's root zone, resulting in a weakened, disfigured plant. The annual "hard" pruning of hybrid teas, floribundas, etc. should generally be done in early spring; most gardeners coincide this pruning with the blooming of forsythia shrubs. Canes should be cut about 1/2" above a vegetative bud (identifiable as a point on a cane where a leaf once grew).

For both Old Garden Roses and Modern Hybrids, any weak, damaged or diseased growth should be pruned away completely, regardless of the time of year. Any pruning of any rose should also be done so that the cut is made at a forty five degree angle above a vegetative bud. This helps the pruned stem callus over more quickly, and also mitigates moisture buildup over the cut, which can lead to disease problems.

For all general rose pruning (including cutting flowers for arrangements), sharp secateurs (hand-held, sickle-bladed pruners) should be used to cut any growth 1/2" or less in diameter. For canes of a thickness greater than 1/2", pole loppers or a small handsaw are generally more effective; secateurs may be damaged or broken in such instances.


Deadheading is the simple practice of manually removing any spent, faded, withered, or discoloured flowers from rose shrubs over the course of the blooming season. The purpose of deadheading is to encourage the plant to focus its energy and resources on forming new offshoots and blooms, rather than in fruit production. Deadheading may also be performed, if spent flowers are unsightly, for aethestic purposes. Roses are particularly responsive to deadheading.

Rose types


Roses are popular garden shrubs, as well as the most popular and commonly sold florists' flowers. In addition to their great economic importance as a florists crop, roses are also of great value to the perfume industry.

Many thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use; most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having mutated into additional petals. As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.

Twentieth-century rose breeders generally emphasized size and colour, producing large, attractive blooms with little or no scent. Many wild and "old-fashioned" roses, by contrast, have a strong sweet scent.

Roses thrive in temperate climates, though certain species and cultivars can flourish in sub-tropical and even tropical climates, especially when grafted onto appropriate rootstock.

There is no single system of classification for garden roses. In general, however, roses are placed in one of three main groups:

Wild Roses

The wild roses includes the species listed above and some of their hybrids.

Old Garden Roses

Most Old Garden Roses are classified into one of the following groups. In general, Old Garden Roses of European or Mediterranean origin are once-blooming shrubs, with notably fragrant, double-flowered blooms primarily in shades of white, pink and red. The shrubs' foliage tends to be highly disease-resistant, and they generally bloom only on two-year-old canes.


Rosa x alba 'Alba Semiplena', an Alba rose
Rosa 'Maiden's Blush', an Alba rose

Literally "white roses", derived from R. arvensis and the closely allied R. alba. These are some of the oldest garden roses, probably brought to Great Britain by the Romans. The shrubs flower once yearly in the spring with blossoms of white or pale pink. The shrubs frequently feature gray-green foliage and a climbing habit of growth . Examples: 'Alba Semiplena', 'White Rose of York'.


The gallica roses have been developed from R. gallica, which is a native of central and southern Europe. They flower once in the summer over low shrubs rarely over 4' tall. Unlike most other once-blooming Old Garden Roses, the gallica class includes shades of red, maroon and deep purplish crimson. Examples: 'Cardinal de Richelieu', 'Charles de Mills', 'Rosa Mundi' (R. gallica versicolor).


Robert de Brie is given credit for bringing damask roses from Persia to Europe sometime between 1254 and 1276, although there is evidence from ancient Roman frescoes that at least one damask rose, the Autumn Damask, existed in Europe for hundreds of years prior. Summer damasks (crosses between gallica roses and R. phoenicea) bloom once in summer. Autumn damasks (Gallicas crossed with R. moschata) bloom again later, in the autumn. Shrubs tend to have rangy to sprawly growth habits and vicious thorns. The flowers typically have a more loose petal formation than gallicas, as well as a stronger, tangy fragrance. Examples: 'Ispahan', 'Madame Hardy'.

Centifolia or Provence

Centifolia roses, raised in the seventeenth century in the Netherlands, are named for their "one hundred" petals; they are often called "cabbage" roses due to the globular shape of the flowers. The result of damask roses crossed with albas, the centifolias are all once-flowering. As a class, they are notable for their inclination to produce mutations of various sizes and forms, including moss roses and some of the first miniature roses (see below) . Examples: 'Centifolia', 'Paul Ricault'.


Mutations of primarily centifolia roses (or sometimes damasks), moss roses have a mossy excrescence on the stems and sepals that often emits a pleasant woodsy or balsam scent when rubbed. Moss roses are cherised for this unique trait, but as a group they have contributed nothing to the development of new rose classifications. Moss roses with centifolia background are once-flowering; some moss roses exhibit repeat-blooming, indicative of Autumn Damask parentage. Example: 'Common Moss' (centifolia-moss), 'Alfred de Dalmas' (Autumn Damask moss).


The China roses were grown in East Asia for thousands of years and finally reached Western Europe in the late 1700s. Compared to the aforementioned European rose classes, the Chinese roses had smaller, less fragrant, more poorly formed blooms carried over twiggier, more cold-sensitive shrubs. Yet they possessed the amazing ability to bloom repeatedly throughout the summer and into late autumn, unlike their European counterparts. This made them highly desirable for hybridization purposes in the early 1800s. The flowers of China roses were also notable for their tendency to "suntan," or darken over time — unlike the blooms of European roses, which tended to fade after opening. Four China roses ('Slater's Crimson China', 1792; 'Parsons' Pink China', 1793; 'Hume's Blush China', 1809; and 'Parks' Yellow Tea Scented China', 1824) were brought to Europe in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This brought about the creation of the first classes of repeat-flowering Old Garden Roses, and later the Modern Garden Roses. Examples: 'Old Blush China', 'Mutabilis' (butterfly rose).


The Portland roses represent the first group of crosses between China roses and European roses, specifically gallicas and damasks. They were named after the Duchess of Portland who received (from Italy in 1800) a rose then known as R. paestana or 'Scarlet Four Seasons' Rose' (now known simply as 'The Portland Rose'). The whole class of Portland roses was thence developed from that one rose. The first repeat-flowering class of rose with fancy European-style blossoms, they are mostly descended from hybrids between damask and China roses. The plants tend to be fairly short and shrubby, with proportionately short flower stalks. Example: 'James Veitch', 'Rose de Rescht', 'Comte de Chambourd'.


Rosa 'Climbing Souvenir de la Malmaison', a Bourbon rose
'Rosa 'Zéphirine Drouhin', a Bourbon rose

Bourbons originated on l'Île de Bourbon (now called Réunion) off the coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. They are most likely the result of a cross between the Autumn Damask and the 'Old Blush' China rose, both of which were frequently used as hedging materials on the island. They flower repeatedly over vigorous, frequently semi-climbing shrubs with glossy foliage and purple-tinted canes. They were first Introduced in France in 1823. Examples: 'Louise Odier', 'Mme. Pierre Oger', 'Zéphirine Drouhin'.


The first Noisette rose was raised as a hybrid seedling by a South Carolina rice planter named John Champneys. Its parents were the China Rose 'Parson's Pink' and the autumn-flowering musk rose (Rosa moschata), resulting in a vigorous climbing rose producing huge clusters of small pink flowers from spring to fall. Champneys sent seedlings of his rose (called 'Champneys' Pink Cluster') to his gardening friend, Philippe Noisette, who in turn sent plants to his brother Louis in Paris, who then introduced 'Blush Noisette' in 1817. The first Noisettes were small-blossomed, fairly winter-hardy climbers, but later infusions of Tea rose genes created a Tea-Noisette subclass with larger flowers, smaller clusters, and considerably reduced winter hardiness. Examples: 'Blush Noisette', 'Mme. Alfred Carriere' (Noisette), 'Marechal Niel' (Tea-Noisette). (See French and German articles on Noisette roses)


The result of crossing two of the original China roses ('Hume's Blush China' and 'Parks' Yellow Tea Scented China') with various Bourbons and Noisette roses, tea roses are considerably more tender than other Old Garden Roses (due to cold-tender Rosa gigantea in the ancestry of the 'Parks' Yellow' rose). The teas are repeat-flowering roses, named for their fragrance being reminiscent of Chinese black tea (although this is not always the case). The color range includes pastel shades of white, pink and yellow, and the petals tend to roll back at the edges, producing a petal with a pointed tip. The individual flowers of many cultivars are semi-pendent and nodding, due to weak flower stalks. Examples: 'Lady Hillingdon', 'Maman Cochet'.

Hybrid Perpetual

The dominant class of roses in Victorian England, hybrid perpetuals first emerged in 1838 and were derived to a great extent from the Bourbons. They became the most popular garden and florist roses of northern Europe at the time, as the tender tea roses would not thrive in cold climates. The "perpetual" in the name hints at repeat-flowering, but many varieties of this class had poor reflowering habits; the tendency was for a massive spring bloom, followed by either scattered summer flowering, a smaller autumn burst, or sometimes nothing at all until next spring. Due to a limited color palette (white, pink, red) and lack of reliable repeat-bloom, the hybrid perpetuals were ultimately overshadowed by their own descendants, the Hybrid Teas. Examples: 'Ferdinand Pichard', 'Reine Des Violettes', 'Paul Neyron'.

Hybrid Musk

The hybrid musk group was primarily developed by Rev. Joseph Pemberton, a British rosarian, in the first decades of the 20th century, based upon 'Aglaia', a 1896 cross by Peter Lambert. A seedling of this rose, 'Trier', is considered to the be foundation of the class. The genetics of the class are somewhat obscure, as some of the parents are unknown. Rose multiflora, however, is known to be one parent, and R. moschata (the musk rose) also figures in its heritage, though it is considered to be less important than the name would suggest. Hybrid musks are disease-resistant, remontant and generally cluster-flowered, with a strong, characteristic "musk" scent.[1][2] Examples include 'Buff Beauty' and 'Penelope'.

Bermuda "Mystery" Roses

A group of several dozen "found" roses that have been grown in Bermuda for at least a century. The roses have significant value and interest for those growing roses in tropical and semi-tropical regions, since they are highly resistant to both nematode damage and the fungal diseases that plague rose culture in hot, humid areas, and capable of blooming in hot and humid weather. Most of these roses are likely Old Garden Rose cultivars that have otherwise dropped out of cultivation, or sports thereof. They are "mystery roses" because their "proper" historical names have been lost. Tradition dictates that they are named after the owner of the garden where they were rediscovered.

Hybrid Rugosa

Derived from the R. Rugosa species, these vigorous roses are extremely hardy with excellent disease resistance. Most are extremely fragrant, repeat bloomers with moderately double flat flowers. The defining characteristic of a Hybrid Rugosa rose is its wrinkly leaves, but some hybrids do lack this trait. These roses will often set hips. Examples include 'Hansa' and 'Roseraie de l'Häy'.


There are also a few smaller classes (such as Scots, Sweet Brier) and some climbing classes of old roses (including Ayrshire, Climbing China, Laevigata, Sempervirens, Boursault, Climbing Tea, and Climbing Bourbon). Those classes with both climbing and shrub forms are often grouped together.

Modern Garden Roses

Rosa 'Cajun Sunrise', a modern Hybrid Tea rose

Classification of modern roses can be quite confusing because many modern roses have old garden roses in their ancestry and their form varies so much. The classifications tend to be by growth and flowering characteristics, such as "large-flowered shrub", "recurrent, large-flowered shrub", "cluster-flowered", "rambler recurrent", or "ground-cover non-recurrent". The following includes the most notable and popular classifications of Modern Garden Roses:

Hybrid Tea

The favourite rose for much of the history of modern roses, hybrid teas were initially created by hybridizing Hybrid Perpetuals with Tea roses in the late 1800s. 'La France,' created in 1867, is universally acknowledged as the first indication of a new class of roses. Hybrid teas exhibit traits midway between both parents: hardier than the teas but less hardy than the hybrid perpetuals, and more everblooming than the hybrid perpetuals but less so than the teas. The flowers are well-formed with large, high-centered buds, and each flowering stem typically terminates in a single shapely bloom. The shrubs tend to be stiffly upright and sparsely foliaged, which today is often seen as a liability in the landscape. The hybrid tea class is important in being the first class of roses to include genes from the old Austrian brier rose (Rosa foetida). This resulted in an entirely new color range for roses: shades of deep yellow, apricot, copper, orange, true scarlet, yellow bicolors, lavender, gray, and even brown were now possible. The new color range did much to skyrocket hybrid tea popularity in the 20th century, but these colors came at a price: Rosa foetida also passed on a tendency toward disease-susceptibility, scentless blooms, and an intolerance of pruning, to its descendants. Hybrid teas became the single most popular class of garden rose of the 20th century; today, their reputation as being more high maintenance than many other rose classes has led to a decline in hybrid tea popularity among gardeners and landscapers in favor of lower-maintenance "landscape" roses. The hybrid tea remains the standard rose of the floral industry, however, and is still favoured in small gardens in formal situations. Examples: 'Peace' (yellow), 'Mr. Lincoln' (red), 'Double Delight' (multicolors).


Literally "many-flowered" roses, from the Greek "poly" (many) and "anthos" (flower). Originally derived from crosses between two East Asian species (Rosa chinensis and R. multiflora), polyanthas first appeared in France in the late 1800s alongside the hybrid teas. They featured short plants — some compact, others spreading in habit — with tiny blooms (1" in diameter on average) carried in large sprays, in the typical rose colors of white, pink and red. Their main claim to fame was their prolific bloom: From spring to fall, a healthy polyantha shrub might be literally covered in flowers, creating a strong color impact in the landscape. Polyantha roses are still regarded as low-maintenance, disease-resistant garden roses today, and remain popular for that reason. Examples: 'Cecile Brunner', 'The Fairy', 'Red Fairy'.


Rosa 'Borussia', a modern Floribunda rose

Rose breeders quickly saw the value in crossing polyanthas with hybrid teas, to create roses that bloomed with the polyantha profusion, but with hybrid tea floral beauty and color range. In 1909, the first polyantha/hybrid tea cross, 'Gruss an Aachen,' was created, with characteristics midway between both parent classes. As the larger, more shapely flowers and hybrid-tea-like growth habit separated these new roses from polyanthas and hybrid teas alike, a new class was created and named Floribunda, Latin for "many-flowering." Typical floribundas feature stiff shrubs, smaller and bushier than the average hybrid tea but less dense and sprawling than the average polyantha. The flowers are often smaller than hybrid teas but are carried in large sprays, giving a better floral effect in the garden. Floribundas are found in all hybrid tea colors and with the classic hybrid tea-shaped blossom, sometimes differing from hybrid teas only in their cluster-flowering habit. Today they are still used in large bedding schemes in public parks and similar spaces. Examples: 'Dainty Maid', 'Iceberg', 'Tuscan Sun'.


Grandifloras (Latin for "large-flowered") were the class of roses created in the mid 1900s to designate back-crosses between hybrid teas and floribundas that fit neither category — specifically, the 'Queen Elizabeth' rose, which was introduced in 1954[3]. Grandiflora shrubs are typically larger than either hybrid teas or floribundas, and feature hybrid tea-style flowers borne in small clusters of three to five, similar to a floribunda. Grandifloras maintained some popularity from about the 1950s to the 1980s but today they are much less popular than either the hybrid teas or the floribundas. Examples: 'Queen Elizabeth', 'Comanche,' 'Montezuma'.


File:"Meillandine" Rose in clay pot.jpg
Meillandine (a miniature rose) in a terra cotta flowerpot

All of the classes of Old Garden Roses—gallicas, centifolias, etc.—had corresponding miniature forms, although these were once-flowering just as their larger forms were. As with the standard-sized varieties, miniature Old Garden roses were crossed with repeat-blooming Asian species to produce everblooming miniature roses. Today, miniature roses are represented by twiggy, repeat-flowering shrubs ranging from 6" to 36" in height, with most falling in the 12"–24" height range. Blooms come in all the hybrid tea colours; many varieties also emulate the classic high-centered hybrid tea flower shape. Miniature roses are often marketed and sold by the floral industry as houseplants, but it is important to remember that these plants are largely descended from outdoor shrubs native to temperate regions; thus, most miniature rose varieties require an annual period of cold dormancy to survive. (Examples: Petite de Hollande (Miniature Centifolia, once-blooming), Cupcake (Modern Miniature, repeat-blooming).)


As is the case with Miniature roses, all aforementioned classes of roses, both Old and Modern, have "climbing" forms, whereby the canes of the shrubs grow much longer and more flexible than the normal ("bush") forms. In the Old Garden Roses, this is often simply the natural growth habit of many cultivars and varieties; in many Modern roses, however, climbing roses are the results of spontaneous mutations. For example, 'Climbing Peace' is designated as a "Climbing Hybrid Tea," for it is genetically identical to the normal "shrub" form of the 'Peace' hybrid tea rose, except that its canes are long and flexible, i.e. "climbing." Most Climbing roses grow anywhere from 8'–20' in height and exhibit repeat-bloom. Rambler roses, although technically a separate class, are often lumped together with climbing roses. They also exhibit long, flexible canes, but are distinguished from true climbers in two ways: A larger overall size (20'–30' tall is common), and a once-blooming habit. It should be noted that both climbing roses and rambling roses are not true vines such as ivy, clematis or wisteria; they lack the ability to cling to supports on their own, and must be manually trained and tied over structures such as arbors and pergolas. Examples: 'Blaze' (repeat-blooming climber), 'American Pillar' (once-blooming rambler).

English / David Austin

Although not officially recognized as a separate class of roses by any established rose authority, English (aka David Austin) roses are often set aside as such by consumers and retailers alike. Development started in the 1960s by David Austin of Shropshire, England, who wanted to rekindle interest in Old Garden Roses by hybridizing them with modern hybrid teas and floribundas. The idea was to create a new group of roses that featured blooms with old-fashioned shapes and fragrances, evocative of classic gallica, alba and damask roses, but with modern repeat-blooming characteristics and the larger modern color range as well. Austin mostly succeeded in his mission; his tribe of "English" roses, now numbering hundreds of varieties, has been warmly embraced by the gardening public and are widely available to consumers. David Austin roses are still actively developed, with new varieties released regularly. It should be noted that the typical winterhardiness and disease-resistance of the classic Old Garden Roses has largely been compromised in the process; many English roses are susceptible to the same disease problems that plague modern hybrid teas and floribundas, and many are not hardy north of USDA Zone 5. Examples: 'Mary Rose,' 'Graham Thomas', 'Tamora'.

Canadian Hardy Roses

Developed for the extreme weather conditions of Canadian winters, these roses were developed by Agriculture Canada at the Morden Research Station in Morden, Manitoba and the Experimental Farm in Ottawa (and later at L'Assomption, Quebec). These two main lines are called the Parkland series and the Explorer series. These programs have now been discontinued; however the remaining plant stock has been taken over by private breeders via the Canadian Artists series. Derived mostly from crosses of native Canadian species and more tender roses, these plants are extremely tolerant of cold weather, some down to -50F. A wide diversity of forms and colors were achieved. Examples include 'Morden Belle', 'Winnipeg Parks' and 'Cuthbert Grant'.

Other notable Canadian breeders include Georges Bugnet and Robert Erskine.

Landscape Roses

These are a modern classifation of rose developed mainly for mass amenity planting. They are collectively known as shrub roses. In the late 20th century, traditional hybrid tea and floribunda rose varieties fell out of favor amid gardeners and landscapers, as they are often labor- and chemical-intensive plants susceptible to myriad pest and disease problems. So-called "landscape" roses have thus been developed to fill the consumer desire for a garden rose that offers color, form and fragrance, but is also low maintenance and easy to care for. Most landscape roses having the following characteristics:

  • Good disease resistance
  • Lower growing habit, usually under 60 cm (24 in)
  • Repeat flowering
  • Disease and pest resistance
  • Non suckering, growing on their own roots.

Principal parties involved in the breeding of new Landscape Roses varieties are: Werner Noak (Germany), Meidiland Roses (France), & Boot & Co. (Netherlands).

Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture


The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.


Cuttings and grafts are necessary for true offspring. Seeds work but you won't know what you have until it blooms.

Pests and diseases

Main article: Pests and diseases of roses

Roses are subject to several diseases, such as rose rust (Phragmidium mucronatum), rose black spot, and powdery mildew. Fungal diseases in the Rose are best solved by a preventative fungicidal spray program rather than by trying to cure an infection after it emerges on the plant. After the disease is visible, its spread can be minimized through pruning and the use of fungicides, although the actual infection cannot be reversed. Certain rose varieties are considerably less susceptible than others to fungal diseases.

The main insect pest affecting roses is the aphid (greenfly), which sucks the sap and weakens the plant. (Ladybirds are a predator of aphids and should be encouraged in the rose garden.) The spraying with insecticide of roses is often recommended but should be done with care to minimize the loss of beneficial insects. Roses are also used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on roses.



See also

External links

  • All-America Rose Selections, a non-profit association of rose growers and introducers dedicated to the introduction and promotion of exceptional roses
  • Rose, Wikipedia entry for the Rose flower.
  • Rosmanes, a regularly updated blog on roses with beautiful images and posts on the history of the flower.
  • Introduction to Roses, a useful post introducing roses to the novice with tips for growing.
  • History of the Roses, a great article from The Garden Prince

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