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 Vanda subsp. var.  Vanda orchids
Vanda Miss Joaquim
Habit: orchid
Height: to
Width: to
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Lifespan: perennial
Exposure: part-sun
Water: moist
Features: flowers
Hidden fields, interally pass variables to right place
Minimum Temp: °Fwarning.png"°F" is not a number.
USDA Zones: to
Sunset Zones:
Flower features: red, yellow, green, purple, multicolored, pink, white, spotted
Orchidaceae > Vanda var. ,

Vanda is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae) which, although not large (about fifty species), is one of the most important florally.

The name "Vanda" is derived from the Sanskrit name for the species Vanda tessellata.

These mostly epiphytic, but sometimes lithophytic or terrestrial orchids are distributed in India, Himalaya, SE Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines, New Guinea, southern China and northern Australia.

The genus has a monopodial growth habit with leaves that are highly variable according to habitat. Some have flat, typically broad, ovoid leaves (strap-leaves), while others have cylindrical (terete), fleshy leaves and are adapted to dry periods. The stems of these orchids vary considerably in size; there are miniature plants and plants with a length of several meters.

There are few to many flattened flowers growing on a lateral inflorescence. Most show a yellow-brown color with brown markings, but they also appear in white, green, orange, red and burgundy shades. The lip has a small spur. Vandas usually bloom every few months and the flowers last for two to three weeks.

This genus is one of the five most horticulturally important orchid genera, because it has some of the most magnificent flowers to be found in the entire orchid family. This has contributed much to the work of hybridists producing flowers for the cut flower market. Vanda coerulea is one of the few botanical orchids with blue flowers (actually a very bluish purple), a property much appreciated for producing interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. Vanda dearei is one of the chief sources of yellow color in Vanda hybrids. Vanda Miss Joaquim is the National Flower of Singapore.

Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture

Vanda (native name in India). Orchidaceae. One of the most attractive groups of East Indian orchids, nearly all species having large handsome flowers.

Dwarf and short-stemmed or tall and branched, sometimes climbing to a considerable height; erect species forming compact plants, with sts. and branches well clothed with 2 opposite rows of lvs.; species like V. teres with a loose straggling habit: lvs. flat or channeled and keeled or terete, sometimes fleshy and deeply channeled; apex pointed, lobed or toothed: fls. in racemes from the axils of the lvs.; sepals and petals similar, spreading, narrowed at the base almost to a claw; labellum firmly united to the column, spurred, lateral lobes small, erect, middle lobe spreading; pollinia on a common stipe.—About 25 species, natives of India and the Malay Isls., with outlying species in China and New Guinea.

Notwithstanding the various conditions surrounding the different species of vanda in their natural habitats, the plants may nearly all be cultivated successfully under the same general treatment. When a general collection is grown, a house of east and west exposure will be found best suited to the wants of vandas. The plants require plenty of light and do not need any shade from November until the middle of February. A house of east and west aspect will require less shading during late fall and early spring than one of southern exposure, and there will be fewer ill effects from direct solar heat at all times. From February until November shading will be necessary, but it should never be too heavy or black-spot is likely to appear. The winter temperature should range from 60° to 65° F. by night and 70° to 75° by day, with a gradual increase of 10° during the summer months. A few degrees more with solar heat and ventilation will do no harm. The atmosphere must be kept moist by damping the benches and paths freely once or twice a day, and ventilation should be given whenever possible, in greater or less degree according to outside conditions. Especially during wet cheerless weather is ventilation important, even if fire heat has to be applied to retain the desired temperature. Vandas may be grown well in either pots or baskets, but the latter are preferable, as they admit air more freely to the roots, whereby they are not so liable to decay from overwatering during severe weather. The best potting or basketing material consists of chopped live sphagnum moss freely interspersed with large pieces of charcoal. This material should be pressed in rather firmly about the roots, leaving a convex surface when finished. A plentiful supply of water is essential at all seasons with copious syringing over the foliage in bright weather. The compost should never be allowed to remain dry for a long time. V. tricolor and similar species grow very well among foliage plants in the warmhouse, where their large aerial roots, which are freely emitted from the sides of the stems, may ramble among the foliage and thereby retain moisture a long time after syringing. A few species, such as V. Amesiana, V. caerulea, and V. Kimballiana, with one or two other alpine species, require about 10° cooler temperature, but otherwise similar treatment to other species of the genus. Stock is increased by removing a foot or more of the leading growth with a sharp knife, allowing several roots to remain attached to each growth and basketing them in the usual manner. These new pieces should be frequently syringed overhead until they become established or they are likely to shrivel. The old stems will nearly always send out several new growths. The principal insect enemies of vandas are several species of scale, which breed fast in a dry atmosphere. They can be kept in check by syringing with strong tobacco-water and by sponging the plants with a 20 per cent solution of alcohol. (Robt. M. Grey.)

V. Batemannii, Lindl.-Vandopsis lissochiloides. — V. cathartica, Hort., is presumably an error for V. Cathcartii. — V. confusa is a new name proposed for V. caerulescens var. Boxallii. — V. cristata, Lindl. Sts. erect: sepals and petals yellow-green, the petals incurved : lip buff, striped with rich purple. B.M. 4304. B.R. 28:48. — V. Dalleana-V. lamellate x V. Boxallii. — V. Floreyae. A natural hybrid. Resembles V. caerulea in habit, but fls. smaller, white with violet lip. — V. gigantea, Lindl. -Vandopsis gigantea. — V. Lowei, Lindl.- Renanthera Lowei. — V. Maronae -V. teres x V. tricolor var. suavis. — V. Niemanii. — V. praemorsa. — V. pumila, Hook. f. Lvs. 4-8 in. long: racemes 3-fld.: fls. fragrant, ivory-white, 2 - 2 1/2 in. across, the lip crimson-striped; sepals and petals oblong-spatulate. Sikkim. B.M. 7968. — V. atriata. Reichb. f.-V. cristata. — V. Watsonii, Rolfe. About 1 ft. tall: lvs. subterete, acute, up to 14 in. long, dark green spotted with brown on sheath: scape brown-spotted, 10-12-fld.: fls. white, the crest and interior of sac yellow spotted brown; sepals and petals obovate-spatulate; lip 3-lobed, the front lobe oval, fimbriate. Annam.

The above text is from the Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. It may be out of date, but still contains valuable and interesting information which can be incorporated into the remainder of the article. Click on "Collapse" in the header to hide this text.



Divide rhizomes in spring or fall[1].

Pests and diseases


Vanda denisoniana, misidentified as Vanda bensonii
A hybrid descendant of Vanda coerulea, misidentified as Vanda coerulea itself
This is the real Vanda coerulea, the Blue Orchid'
Vanda tricolor, misidentified as Vanda insignis
Vanda suavis, currently mistreated as merely another variety of Vanda tricolor

Natural hybrids

  • Vanda × boumaniae (V. insignis × V. limbata) (Lesser Sunda Is.).
  • Vanda × charlesworthii (V. bensonii × V. coerulea) (Myanmar).
  • Vanda × confusa (V. coerulescens × V. lilacina) (Myanmar).
  • Vanda x Miss Joaquim (V. hookeriana x V. teres) (Singapore).

Intergeneric hybrids

  • Aeridovanda (Aerides x Vanda)
  • Aeridovanisia (Aerides x Luisia x Vanda)
  • Alphonsoara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Andrewara (Arachnis x Renanthera x Trichoglottis x Vanda)
  • Aranda (Arachnis x Vanda)
  • Ascocenda (Ascocentrum x Vanda)
  • Ascovandoritis (Ascocentrum x Doritis x Vanda)
  • Bokchoonara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Bovornara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Burkillara (Aerides x Arachnis x Vanda)
  • Charlieara (Rhynchostylis x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Christieara (Aerides x Ascocentrum x Vanda)
  • Darwinara (Ascocentrum x Neofinetia x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Debruyneara (Ascocentrum x Luisia x Vanda)
  • Devereuxara (Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Eastonara (Ascocentrum x Gastrochilus x Vanda)
  • Fujiora (Ascocentrum x Trichoglottis x Vanda)
  • Goffara (Luisia x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Hawaiiara (Renanthera x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Hagerara (Doritis x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Himoriara (Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Holttumara (Arachnis x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Isaoara (Aerides x Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Joannara (Renanthera x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Kagawara (Ascocentrum x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Knappara (Ascocentrum x Rhynchostylis x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Knudsonara (Ascocentrum x Neofinetia x Renanthera x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Leeara (Arachnis x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Luisanda (Luisia x Vanda)
  • Luivanetia (Luisia x Neofinetia x Vanda)
  • Lewisara (Aerides x Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Vanda)
  • Maccoyara (Aerides x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Macekara (Arachnis x Phalaenopsis x Renanthera x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Micholitzara (Aerides x Ascocentrum x Neofinetia x Vanda)
  • Moirara (Phalaenopsis x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Mokara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Vanda)
  • Nakamotoara (Ascocentrum x Neofinetia x Vanda)
  • Nobleara (Aerides x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Okaara (Ascocentrum x Renanthera x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Onoara (Ascocentrum x Renanthera x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Opsisanda (Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Pageara (Ascocentrum x Luisia x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Pantapaara (Ascoglossum x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Paulara (Ascocentrum x Doritis x Phalaenopsis x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Pehara (Aerides x Arachnis x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Pereiraara (Aerides x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Phalaerianda (Aerides x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Raganara (Renanthera x Trichoglottis x Vanda)
  • Ramasamyara (Arachnis x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Renafinanda (Neofinetia x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Renanda (Arachnis x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Renantanda (Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Rhynchovanda (Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Ridleyare (Arachnis x Trichoglottis x Vanda)
  • Robinaria (Aerides x Ascocentrum x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Ronnyara (Aerides x Ascocentrum x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Sanjumeara (Aerides x Neofinetia x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Sarcovanda (Sarcochilus x Vanda)
  • Shigeuraara (Ascocentrum x Ascoglossum x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Stamariaara (Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Sutingara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Phalaenopsis x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Teohara (Arachnis x Renanthera x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Trevorara (Arachnis x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Trichovanda (Trichoglottis x Vanda)
  • Vascostylis (Ascocentrum x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Vandachnis (Arachnis x Vandopsis)
  • Vancampe (Acampe x Vanda)
  • Vandaenopsis (Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Vandaeranthes (Aeranthes x Vanda)
  • Vandewegheara (Ascocentrum x Doritis x Phalaenopsis x Vanda)
  • Vandofinetia (Neofinetia x Vanda)
  • Vandofinides (Aerides x Neofinetia x Vanda)
  • Vandoritis (Doritis x Vanda)
  • Vanglossum (Ascoglossum x Vanda)
  • Wilkinsara (Ascocentrum x Vanda x Vandopsis)
  • Yapara (Phalaenopsis x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)
  • Yusofara (Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Renanthera x Vanda)
  • Yonezawaara (Neofinetia x Rhynchostylis x Vanda)


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