|Xylosma subsp. var.|
|Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture|
Xylosma (Greek, xylos, wood, and osme, odor; alluding to the aromatic wood of some species). Syns., Myroxylon, Hisingera. Flacourtiaceae. About 45 species of evergreen, often spiny, trees or shrubs distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres except Afr. Lvs. alternate, short-petioled, usually dentate, exstipulate: fls. small, in axillary racemes, usually dioecious, apetalous; sepals 4-5, slightly connate at the base; stamens many, distinct, surrounded by a disk; ovary superior, surrounded by a disk and sometimes by staminodes, 1-celled with several ovules; styles 2-3, usually connate. Little known in cult.; prop. by seeds and probably by cuttings of half-ripened wood under glass.
X. Aquifolium, Sprague. Lvs. holly-like or occasionally nearly entire, having pair of glands at base of blade, 2-4 in. long: racemes short, axillary, of very small fls.: styles 6-7. Habitat unknown, probably Polynesia or Austral.
The genus is predominantly native to the tropics, from the Caribbean, Central America, northern South America, the Pacific Islands, southern Asia and northern Australasia, but with two species, X. congestum and X. japonicum, in warm-temperate eastern Asia (China, Korea and Japan).
The leaves are alternate, simple, entire or finely toothed, 2-10 cm long. The flowers are small, yellowish, produced on racemes 1-3 cm long, with a strong scent. The fruit is a small purple-black berry 5-10 mm diameter.
The main use for the genus is as hedge plants among gardeners in desert and chaparral climates. Xylosma congestum, the Shiny Xylosma, is the species usually seen in garden hedges and in road landscaping.
Pests and diseases
About 85-100 species
- Selected species
- Xylosma bahamensis (Britt.) Standl.
- Xylosma bolivianum Sleumer
- Xylosma buxifolia Gray (Mucha-gente)
- Xylosma congestum (Lour.) Merrill (Shiny Xylosma)
- Xylosma crenatum St. John (Sawtooth Logwood)
- Xylosma flexuosum (HBK) Hemsl. (Brushholly)
- Xylosma hawaiiense Seem. (Maua or Hawaii Brushholly)
- Xylosma heterophyllum (H.Karst.) Gilg.
- Xylosma japonicum (Thunb.) A.Gr.
- Xylosma pachyphylla Urban (Spiny Logwood)
- Xylosma pseudosalzmannii
- Xylosma schaefferioides Gray (White Logwood)
- Xylosma schwaneckeana Urban (Schwaneck's Logwood)
- Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, MacMillan Co., 1963