List of psychoactive plants

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This is a list of plants (flora) which contain psychoactive drugs. Psychoactive plants have been used traditionally for thousands of years by human cultures all around the world and many play a significant role in society. This list covers plants which are potentially psychoactive, while the list of entheogens covers plants which are known to be traditionally used as entheogens or psychoactives.


Psychoactive Flora by Family


  • Fittonia albivenis, a common ornamental plant from South America. The plant has unknown compounds, that reportedly cause "visions of eyeballs." It is also useful in the treatment of headaches, etc.
  • Justicia pectoralis[1]



Sceletium tortuosum or "Kanna" has been used by South African pastoralists and hunter-gatherers as a mood-altering substance from prehistoric times.



  • Ilex guayusa, which is used as an additive to some versions of Ayahuasca. According to the Ecuadorian indigenous, it is also slightly hallucinogenic on its own, when drunk in high enough quantities.
  • Ilex paraguariensis which is also known as "Yerba Mate"...
  • Ilex vomitoria or "Yaupon Holly" is ...

and some other hollies are used as tea substitute stimulants!



Species Alkaloid Content (Fresh) Alkaloid Content (Dried)
Echinopsis lageniformis(syn. Trichocereus bridgesii) Mescaline > 0.025%,[7] also 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine < 1%, 3-methoxytyramine < 1%, tyramine < 1% 2%[8]
Echinopsis pachanoi(syn. Trichocereus pachanoi) Mescaline 0.006-0.12%, 0.05% Average[9] Mescaline 0.01%-2.375%[9]
Echinopsis spachiana(syn. Trichocereus spachianus) Mescaline[10] Mescaline[10]
Lophophora williamsii(Peyote) 0.4% Mescaline[11] 3-6% Mescaline[10]
Opuntia acanthocarpa Mescaline[10]
Opuntia basilaris Mescaline 0.01%, plus 4-hydroxy-3-5
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica(syn. Opuntia cylindrica)[12] Mescaline[10]
Cylindropuntia echinocarpa(syn. Opuntia echinocarpa) Mescaline 0.01%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine 0.01%, 4-hydroxy-3-5-dimethoxyphenethylamine 0.01%[10]
Cylindropuntia spinosior(syn. Opuntia spinosior)[13] Mescaline 0.00004%, 3-methoxytyramine 0.001%, tyramine 0.002%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine.[10]
Echinopsis macrogona(syn. Trichocereus macrogonus) > 0.01-0.05% Mescaline[14]
Echinopsis peruviana(syn. Trichocereus peruvianus) Mescaline 0.0005%-0.12%[9] Mescaline
Echinopsis tacaquirensissubsp. taquimbalensis(syn. Trichocereus taquimbalensis)[15] > 0.005-0.025% Mescaline[14]
Echinopsis terscheckii(syn. Trichocereus terscheckii, Trichocereus werdemannianus)[16] > 0.005-0.025% Mescaline[14] Mescaline 0.01%-2.375%[9]
Echinopsis valida 0.025% Mescaline[11]
Pelecyphora aselliformis Mescaline[11]


Cannabis plant
Main article: Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis (Marijuana) is a popular psychedelic plant. Cannabis is also unique in that it contains a psychedelic substance, THC, which contains no nitrogen and is not an indole, phenethylamine, anticholinergic (deliriant), or a disassociative drug. Currently, certain universities and research firms are studying the medicinal effects of cannabis. Many jurisdictions have laws regulating the sale and use of medical cannabis to treat pain, insomnia, and stimulate appetite.

Humulus lupulus

Humulus japonicus-



| Silene-capensis.jpg Silene capensis |Produces vivid dreams after ingesting.



| 150px Catha edulis | Khat


Ipomoea violacea.jpg
Ipomoea tricolor & Ipomoea violacea
<center>D-lysergic acid amide and lysergic acid amides in the seeds; up to 0.12% total[17]
Rivea corymbosa
Seeds contain D-lysergic acid amide, lysergol, and turbicoryn; lysergic acid alkaloids up to 0.03%[18]

| Starr 050107-2974 Argyreia nervosa.jpg Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose) |Seeds contain high amounts of LSA (also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111), often 50-150X the amounts found in Ipomoea violacea.


Fabaceae (Leguminosae)

Acacia acuminata
Up to 1.5% alkaloids, mainly consisting of tryptamine in leaf[19]
Alpina mueller.jpg
Acacia alpina
Active principles in leaf[20]
Acacia angustissima usgs.png
Acacia angustissima
ß-methyl-phenethylamine[21], NMT and DMT in leaf (1.1-10.2 ppm)[22]
Acacia aroma
Tryptamine alkaloids.[23] Significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds.[24]
Starr 031013-8001 Acacia auriculiformis.jpg
Acacia auriculiformis
5-MeO-DMT in stem bark[25]
Acacia baileyana.jpg
Acacia baileyana
0.02% tryptamine and ß-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman[20][26][27]
<center>Acacia beauverdiana Psychoactive[28] Ash used in Pituri.[29]
Acacia berlandieri
DMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine[30]
Acacia catechu
DMT[2] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia caven
Acacia chundra
DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia colei
Acacia complanata
0.3% alkaloids in leaf and stem, almost all N-methyl-tetrahydroharman, with traces of tetrahydroharman, some of tryptamine[33][34][35]
Starr 050107-2872 Acacia confusa.jpg
Acacia confusa
DMT & NMT in leaf, stem & bark 0.04% NMT and 0.02% DMT in stem.[20] Also N,N-dimethyltryptamine N-oxide[36]
Acacia cornigera
Psychoactive,[31] Tryptamines[37]
Acacia cultriformis leaves.jpg
Acacia cultriformis
Tryptamine, in the leaf, stem[20] and seeds.[24] Phenethylamine in leaf and seeds[24]
Acacia cuthbertsonii
Acacia decurrens
Psychoactive,[31] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[27]
Acacia delibrata
Acacia falcata
Psychoactive,[28] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[27]
Acacia farnesiana
Traces of 5-MeO-DMT[38] in fruit. ß-methyl-phenethylamine, flower.[39] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[40] Alkaloids are present in the bark[41] and leaves.[42] Amphetamines and mescaline also found in tree.[37]
Acacia floribunda
Tryptamine, phenethylamine,[43] in flowers[24] other tryptamines,[44]
Acacia georginae
Psychoactive,[31] plus deadly toxins
Acacia horrida
Acacia implexa
Acacia jurema
Acacia karroo2.jpg
Acacia karroo
Acacia laeta
DMT, in the leaf[20]
Acacia longifolia
0.2% tryptamine in bark, leaves, some in flowers, phenylethylamine in flowers,[43] 0.2% DMT in plant.[46] Histamine alkaloids.[27]
Acacia longifolia
var. sophorae
Tryptamine in leaves, bark[24]
Acacia macradenia
Acacia maidenii.jpg
Acacia maidenii
0.6% NMT and DMT in about a 2:3 ratio in the stem bark, both present in leaves[20]
Starr 031013-8002 Acacia mangium.jpg
Acacia mangium
Acacia melanoxylon branch.jpg
Acacia melanoxylon
DMT, in the bark and leaf,[47] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[27]
Acacia mellifera 3D-Modell.jpg
Acacia mellifera
DMT, in the leaf[20]
Acacia nilotica
DMT, in the leaf[20]
Acacia nilotica
subsp. adstringens
Psychoactive, DMT in the leaf
Acacia obtusifolia
Tryptamine, DMT, NMT, other tryptamines,[45] 0.4-0.5% in dried bark, 0.07% in branch tips.[48]
Acacia oerfota
Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[26][49] NMT
Acacia penninervis
Acacia phlebophylla.jpg
Acacia phlebophylla
0.3% DMT in leaf, NMT[20]
Starr 020911-0004 Acacia podalyriifolia.jpg
Acacia podalyriaefolia
Tryptamine in the leaf,[20] 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark, phenethylamine, trace amounts[43]
Acacia polycantha.png
Acacia polyacantha
DMT in leaf[20] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia polyacantha
ssp. campylacantha
Less than 0.2% DMT in leaf, NMT; DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark[50]
Acacia rigidula.jpg
Acacia rigidula
DMT, NMT, tryptamine, traces of amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and others[51]
Acacia sassa
Acacia schaffneri
ß-methyl-phenethylamine, Phenethylamine[52] Amphetamines and mescaline also found.[37]
Acacia senegal
Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[20] NMT, other tryptamines. DMT in plant,[39] DMT in bark.[24]
Acacia seyal
DMT, in the leaf.[20] Ether extracts about 1-7% of the dried leaf mass.[40]
Acacia sieberiana
DMT, in the leaf[20]
Acacia simplex.jpg
Acacia simplex
DMT and NMT, in the leaf, stem and trunk bark, 0.81% DMT in bark, MMT[20][53]
Acacia tortilis
DMT, NMT, and other tryptamines[45]
Acacia vestita.jpg
Acacia vestita
Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem,[20] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[27]
Acacia victoriae
Tryptamines, 5-MeO-alkyltryptamine[24]
Anadenanthera colubrina.jpg
Anadenanthera colubrina
Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil
Bufotenin and Dimethyltryptamine have been isolated from the seeds and seed pods, 5-MeO-DMT from the bark of the stems.[56] The seeds were found to contain 12.4% bufotenine, 0.06% 5-MeO-DMT and 0.06% DMT.[57]
Anadenanthera peregrina.jpg
Anadenanthera peregrina
Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina

Bufotenine is in the seeds.[59]

Desmanthus illinoensis
0% - 0.34% DMT in root bark, highly variable.[60] Also NMT, N-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, 2-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine, and gramine (toxic).[61]
File:Desmanthus leptolobus drawing.jpeg
Desmanthus leptolobus
0.14% DMT in root bark, more reliable than D. illinoensis[60]
Desmodium caudatum[62]
(syn. Ohwia caudata )
Roots: 0.087% DMT,[63] Bufotenine-N-oxide 0.03%
Desmodium gangeticum.jpg
Desmodium gangeticum
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT, whole plant, roots, stems, leaves[64]
Desmodium intortum
Bufotentine, DMT[65]
Codariocalyx motorius Taub39.png
Codariocalyx motorius
(syn. Desmodium gyrans)
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT, leaves, roots[64]
Desmodium racemosum
Starr 020803-0111 Desmodium triflorum.jpg
Desmodium triflorum
0.0004% DMT-N-oxide, roots,[63] less in stems[63] and trace in leaves.[63]
Lespedeza capitata habit.jpg
Lespedeza capitata
Lespedeza ja02.jpg
Lespedeza bicolor
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and roots[66]
Lespedeza bicolor var. japonica
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and root bark[64]
Mimosa ophthalmocentra
Dried root: DMT 1.6%, NMT 0.0012% and hordenine 0.0065%[67]
Mimosa scabrella
Tryptamine, NMT, DMT and N-methyltetrahydrocarboline in bark[68]
Mimosa somnians
Trytamines and MMT
Mimosa Hostilis.jpg
Mimosa tenuiflora
(syn. "Mimosa hostilis")
0.31-0.57% DMT (dry root bark).[69]
Mimosa verrucosa01.jpg
Mimosa verrucosa
DMT[70] in root bark
Mucuna pruriens
"The leaves, seeds, stems and roots contain L-Dopa, Serotonin, 5-HTP, and Nicotine, as well as N,N-DMT, Bufotenine, and 5-MeO-DMT."[71]
Petalostylis casseoides
0.4-0.5% tryptamine, DMT, etc. in leaves and stems[66]
Petalostylis labicheoides var. casseoides
DMT in leaves and stems[64]
Phyllodium pulchellum
(syn. Desmodium pulchellum)
0.2% 5-MeO-DMT, small quantities of DMT[66] DMT (dominates in seedlings and young plants), 5-MEO-DMT (dominates in mature plant), whole plant, roots, stems, leaves, flowers[64]

Erythrina flabelliformis, other Erythrina species, seeds contain the alkaloids Erysodin and Erysovin[72]


| Blank.jpg Zornia latifolia | Zornia latifolia, is mentioned in Food of the Gods as "an hallucinogenic substitute for cannabis". It's nicknamed Maconha brava because locals use it as a cannabis substitute. |-

Caesalpinioideae subfamily of Fabacaeae


Bulbocapnine skeletal.svg

| Corydalis ambigua.jpg Corydalis solida, Corydalis cava | Bulbocapnine, Nantenine, Tetrahydropalmatine



| Blank.jpg Lagochilus inebrians | Lagochilin is thought to be responsible for the sedative, hypotensive and hemostatic effects of this plant.


| Leonotis leonurus flower.jpg Leonotis leonurus |Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)

| Salvia divinorum - Herba de Maria.jpg Salvia divinorum | Salvinorin A, 0.89-3.87 mg/g, also Salvinorin B and Salvinorin C[75] |-




Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana Comparison 4400px.jpg Magnolia virginianaThe leaves or bark have been placed in cupped hands over the nose and inhaled as a mild hallucinogen



Virola genus

Virola calophylla Leaves 0.149% DMT, leaves 0.006% MMT[64] 5-MeO-DMT in bark[78]
Virola callophylloidea DMT
Virola carinata DMT in leaves[64]
Virola cuspidata DMT[74]
Virola divergens DMT in leaves[64]
Virola elongata
(syn. Virola theiodora)
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark, roots, leaves and flowers[64]
Virola melinonii DMT in bark[64]
Virola multinervia DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark and roots[64]
Virola pavonis DMT in leaves[64]
Virola peruviana 5-MEO-DMT, traces of DMT and 5-MeO-tryptamine in bark[64]
Virola rufula Alkaloids in bark and root, 95% of which is MeO-DMT[79] 0.190% 5-MeO-DMT in bark,[64] 0.135% 5-MeO-DMT in root, 0.092% DMT in leaves.[64]
Virola sebifera The bark contains 0.065% to 0.25% alkaloids, most of which are DMT and 5-MeO-DMT.[80]
Virola surinamensis DMT[74] in bark[64]
Virola venosa DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in roots, leaves[64] DMT


  • Peganum harmala, (Syrian Rue), The seeds contain about 2-6% alkaloids, most of which is harmaline.[81] Peganum harmala is also an abortifacient.
    Peganum harmala1.jpg


    | Nymphaea caerulea.jpg Nymphaea caerulea |Recent studies have shown Nymphaea caerulea to have psychedelic properties, and may have been used as a sacrament in ancient Egypt and certain ancient South American cultures. Dosages of 5 to 10 grams of the flowers induces slight stimulation, a shift in thought processes, enhanced visual perception, and mild closed-eye visuals. Nymphaea caerulea is related to, and possesses similar activity as Nelumbo nucifera, the Sacred Lotus. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and apomorphine, which have been recently isolated by independent labs.[citation needed]

    These psychoactive effects make Nymphaea caerulea a likely candidate (among several) for the lotus plant eaten by the mythical Lotophagi in Homer's Odyssey.

    Used in aromatherapy, Nymphaea caerulea is purported to have a "divine" essence, bringing euphoria, heightened awareness and tranquility.[citation needed]

    Other sources cite anti-spasmodic and sedative, purifying and calming properties.




    Genus Pandanus (Screw Pine): DMT in nuts[66]


    The most famous member of this family is the Opium poppy.


    | Stachelmohn.JPG Argemone mexicana | Used by Chinese residents of Mexico during the early 20th century as a legal substitute for opium and currently smoked as a marijuana substitute.


    | Glaucium flavum03.jpg Glaucium flavum | Glaucine


  • Passiflora caerulea, Harman
    PassifloraCaerulea Bluete von oben.jpg
  • Passiflora incarnata contains Harmine, Harmaline, Harman, etc. 0.03%.[82]



    | Starr 040318-0058 Piper methysticum.jpg Piper methysticum | Kavalactones

    Poaceae (Gramineae)

    Some Graminae (grass) species contain gramine, which can cause brain damage, other organ damage, central nervous system damage and death in sheep.[83]

    Alkaloids (Dried)
    Arundo donax
    0.0057% DMT in dried rhizome, no stem, 0.026% bufotenine, 0.0023% 5-MeO-MMT[84]
    Phalaris aquatica.jpg
    Phalaris aquatica
    0.0007-0.18% Total alkaloids,[85] 0.100% DMT,[86] 0.022% 5-MeO-DMT,[86] 0.005% 5-OH-DMT[86]
    Rietgras bloeiwijze Phalaris arundinacea.jpg
    Phalaris arundinacea
    0.0004-0.121% Total alkaloids[85]
    Phalaris brachystachys
    Aerial parts up to 3% total alkaloids, DMT present[citation needed]
    Phragmites australis Schilfrohr.jpg
    Phragmites australis
    DMT in roots[64]

    None of the above alkaloids are said to have been found in Phalaris californica, Phalaris canariensis, Phalaris minor and hybrids of P. arundinacea together with P. aquatica.[85]



    • Punica granatum "DMT in root cortex;"[74] The dried stem and root bark of the tree contain about 0.4-0.9% alkaloids.[87]


    Mitragyna speciosa also known as "Kratom" is a plant which leaf is used for it's opiod effect.150px

    Alkaloids (Dried)
    Psychotria carthagenensis
    0.2% average DMT in dried leaves[64]
    Psychotria expansa
    Psychotria forsteriana
    Psychotria insularum
    Psychotria poeppigiana.jpg
    Psychotria poeppigiana [1]
    Psychotria rostrata
    Psychotria rufipilis
    Psychotria viridis.gif
    Psychotria viridis
    DMT 0.1-0.61% dried mass.[88]


    Alkaloids (Dried)
    Dictyoloma incanescens.png
    Dictyoloma incanescens
    5-MeO-DMT in leaves,[64][79] 0.04% 5-MeO-DMT in bark[66]
    Dutaillyea drupacea
    > 0.4 % 5-MeO-DMT in leaves[45][64]
    Dutaillyea oreophila
    5-MeO-DMT in leaves[64]
    Rutaceae sp SZ21.png
    Tetradium ruticarpum
    (syn. Evodia rutaecarpa)
    5-MeO-DMT in leaves,[64] fruit and roots
    Limonia acidissima syn Limonia elephantum or Fernonia limonia (wood-apple) in Talakona forest, AP W IMG 8334.jpg
    Limonia acidissima
    5-MeO-DMT in stems[64]
    Euodia leptococca (formerly Melicope)
    0.2% total alkaloids, 0.07% 5-MeO-DMT; 5-MeO-DMT in leaves and stems,[64] also "5-MeO-DMT-Oxide and a beta-carboline"[73]
    Pilocarpus organensis
    5-MeO-DMT in leaves[64]
    Vepris ampody
    Up to 0.2% DMT in leaves and branches[64][66]
    Zanthoxylum arborescens
    DMT in leaves[64]
    Zanthoxylum procerum
    DMT in leaves[64]



    | Tunera diffusa 2.jpg Turnera diffusa | Damianin


    See also



    External links

    Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found
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