List of vegetable oils

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Template:Vegetable oils

The list of vegetable oils includes all vegetable oils that are extracted from plants by placing the relevant part of the plant under pressure, to squeeze the oil out. Although few plants are entirely without oil, the oil from a small set of major oil crops [1] complemented by a few dozen minor oil crops[2] has become widely used and traded.

Oils may also be extracted from plants by dissolving parts of plants in water or another solvent, and distilling the oil (known as essential oils), or by infusing parts of plants in a base oil (a process known as maceration; see list of macerated oils). The distilled essential oils often have quite different properties and uses to vegetable oils, and are listed in the list of essential oils.

Vegetable oils can be classified in several ways, for example:

  • By source: most, but not all vegetable oils are extracted from the fruits or seeds of plants, and the oils may be classified by grouping oils from similar plants, such as "nut oils".
  • By use: oils from plants are used in cooking, for fuel, for cosmetics, for medical purposes, and for other industrial purposes.

The vegetable oils are grouped below in common classes of use.


Edible oils


Major oils

Sunflowers are the source of Sunflower oil.

These oils account for a significant fraction of world-wide edible oil production. All are also used as fuel oils.

Nut oils

Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel, used to make Hazelnut oil.

Nut oils are generally used in cooking, for their flavor. They are also quite costly, because of the difficulty of extracting the oil.

Oils from melon and gourd seeds

Members of the cucurbitaceae include gourds, melons, pumpkins, and squashes. Seeds from these plants are noted for their oil content, but little information is available on methods of extracting the oil. In most cases, the plants are grown as food, with dietary use of the oils as a byproduct of using the seeds as food.[23]

Food supplements

A number of oils are used as food supplements, for their nutrient content or medical effect.

Other edible oils

Carob seed pods, used to make carob pod oil.
Coriander seeds are the source of an edible pressed oil, Coriander seed oil.

Oils used for biofuel


A number of the oils listed above are used for biofuel (biodiesel and Straight Vegetable Oil) in addition to having other uses. A number of oils are used only as biofuel.[65][66]

Although diesel engines were invented, in part, with vegetable oil in mind,[67] diesel fuel is almost exclusively petroleum-based. Rising oil prices have made biodiesel more attractive. Vegetable oils are evaluated for use as a biofuel based on:

  1. Suitability as a fuel, based on flash point, energy content, viscosity, combustion products and other factors
  2. Cost, based in part on yield, effort required to grow and harvest, and post-harvest processing cost
A flask of biodiesel.

Multipurpose oils also used as biofuel

The oils listed immediately below are all (primarily) used for other purposes - all but tung oil are edible - but have been considered for use as biofuel.

Inedible oils used only or primarily as biofuel

These oils are extracted from plants that are cultivated solely for producing oil-based biofuel.[81] These, plus the major oils described above, have received much more attention as fuel oils than other plant oils.

Drying oils

Drying oils are vegetable oils that dry to a hard finish at normal room temperature. Such oils are used as the basis of oil paints, and in other paint and wood finishing applications. In addition to the oils listed here, walnut, sunflower and safflower oil are also considered to be drying oils.[90]

Other oils

A number of pressed vegetable oils are either not edible, or not used as an edible oil.

Castor beans are the source of castor oil

See also

General references

Notes and references

  1. Economic Research Service (1995-2006). Oil Crops Outlook. United States Department of Agriculture.  This publication is available via email subscription.
  2. B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). Minor oil crops. FAO. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  3. "". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  4. "Bulk Oil: Corn oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  5. "Bulk oil: Cottonseed oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  6. "Canola Oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  7. "Olive oil history". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  8. "Bulk oil: Palm oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  9. "Cook's encyclopedia: Peanut oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  10. "Bulk oil: safflower". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  11. "Bulk oil: sesame oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  12. "Southeast Farm Press: World soybean consumption quickens". Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  13. "Bulk oil: Sunflower oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  14. "Bulk oil: Almond oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  15. Science Service, Inc. (March 23, 1991). "Cashew oil may conquer cavities". Science News. 
  16. "Cook's encyclopedia: Hazelnut oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  17. "Bulk Carrier and Vegetable Oils: Hazelnut oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  18. "Mac Nut Oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  19. J. Benton Storey. "Pecans as a health food". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  20. "Virgin pistachio oil". 1,001 Huiles Web site. Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  21. "What's cooking America? - Walnut oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  22. " Is Walnut Oil a Good, Non-Toxic Medium for Oils?". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  23. B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Cucurbitaceae". Minor oil crops. FAO. Retrieved 2007-01-01. 
  24. B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Bottle gourd". Minor oil crops. FAO. Retrieved 2007-01-01. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Squashes, Gourds and Pumpkins". ECHO. Retrieved on 2006-11-12.
  26. "Pumpkin seed oil - information". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  27. "Watermelon Seed Oil". From Nature With Love. Retrieved on 2006-12-26.
  28. "Bulk oil: Acai oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  29. "PDR Health: Blackcurrant Seed Oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  30. "Truestar Health: Borage Oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  31. "Truestar Health: Evening primrose oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  32. "Nu World: Amaranth oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  33. " Apricit". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  34. "Argan oil". Retrieved on 2006-02-10.
  35. "Plant Oils Used for Bio-diesel"., the Biodiesel WWW Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  36. "Food reference: Avocado". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  37. "Purdue New Crops: Avocado oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  38. See chart in smoke point
  39. "By the planet: What is Babassu Oil?". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  40. B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Borneo tallow nut". Minor oil crops. FAO. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  41. "". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  42. "Attalea cohune". Floridata. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  43. "Coriander Seed Oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  44. 44.0 44.1 "False Flax Oil". Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie. Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  45. "All Spirit Fitness: Grape Seed Oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  46. "Hemp oil: A true superfood?". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  47. "Kapok seed oil". German Transport Information Service. Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  48. Glynis Jones, Soultana M. Valamoti (2005). "Lallemantia, an imported or introduced oil plant in Bronze Age northern Greece". Vegetation history and archaeobotany 14 (4): 571-577. Retrieved 2006-11-08. 
  49. Dan Burden. "Meadowfoam". AgMRC Web site. Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  50. "German Transport Information System: Mustard oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  51. R. Holser, G. Bost (May , 2004). "Hibiscus seed oil compositions". AOCS 95. 
  52. David M. Brenner (1993). "Perilla: Botany, Uses and Genetic Resources". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  53. B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Caryocar spp.". Minor oil crops. FAO. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  54. "Recipe Tips: Pine Seed Oil - Glossary of Kitchen and Food Terms". Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  55. "Raw oils: Poppy Seed oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  56. "Statfold oils: Poppyseed oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  57. " Oil Painting: Drying Oils or Mediums". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  58. "Virgin prune kernel oil". Iterg, the French Institute for Fats and Oils. Retrieved on 2006-07-24.
  59. Michael J. Koziol (1993). "Quinoa: A Potential New Oil Crop". New crops 2. 
  60. "The Probert Encyclopedia: Ramtil Oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  61. "California Rice Oil: Rice Bran Oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  62. John M. Ruter (1993). "Nursery Production of Tea Oil Camellia Under Different Light Levels". Trends in new crops and new uses. 
  63. "Danish Food Composition Database: Thistle oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  64. "Kitchen Dictionary: Wheat Germ".
  65. Ethanol and, to a lesser degree, methanol are the other major types of biofuel.
  66. 66.0 66.1 66.2 " Bio fuels". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  67. 67.0 67.1 "Biodiesel America: Dr. Diesel's Invention". Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  68. " Castor Oil as Biodiesel & Biofuel". Retrieved on 2007-07-25.
  69. "Coconut Oil as a Biofuel in Pacific Islands - Challenges & Opportunities" (PDF). South Pacific Applied Geoscience Web site.
  70. Ronald C. Griffin and Madhu Jamallamudi. "The Economic Circumstances of Cottonseed Oil as Biodiesel" (PDF).
  71. "Hemp car: Pollution: Petrol vs Hemp". Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  72. Office of University Research and Education (November 2001). "Biodiesel from Yellow Mustard Oil". U.S. Department of Transportation.
  73. Wes Jackson (Fall 1999). "Clearcutting the Last Wilderness". The Land Report (The Land Institute) (65). 
  74. "Australian Agronomy Society: Bio-diesel, farming for the future". Retrieved on 2006-02-26.
  75. B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Noog abyssinia". Minor oil crops. FAO. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  76. Orchidea Rachmaniah, Yi-Hsu Ju, Shaik Ramjan Vali, Ismojowati Tjondronegoro, and Musfil A.S. (2004). "A Study on Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification of Crude Rice Bran Oil for Biodiesel Production" (PDF). World Energy Congress (19). 
  77. Jesus Fernandez. "Safflower oil in your tank". Queen City News.
  78. "European Energy Crops InterNetwork: Sunflower crop feasibility for biodiesel production in Spain". Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  79. "Journey to Forever: Bio-diesel Yield". Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  80. "The Chemistry of Biodiesel". Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  81. There are some plants that yield a commercial vegetable oil, that are also used to make other sorts of biofuel. Eucalyptus, for example, has been explored as a means of biomass for producing ethanol. These plants are not listed here.
  82. "Greenfuel Technologies". Retrieved on 2006-07-31. Company developing Algae oil.
  83. "USA Today: Algae — like a breath mint for smokestacks".
  84. Template:Duke Handbook
  85. "Good News India: Honge Oil proves to be a good biodiesel". Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  86. "The Jatropha System". Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  87. Template:Duke Handbook
  88. Template:Duke Handbook
  89. Template:Duke Handbook
  90. 90.0 90.1 "The Encyclopedia of Painting Materials: Drying oils". Retrieved on 2006-08-02.
  91. "Mast & Sail in Europe". Retrieved on 2006-07-25. (Mentions the use of dammar oil in marine paints)
  92. "Database of Oil Yielding Plants" (PDF). (Mentions uses of dammar oil)
  93. "Flaxseed oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  94. "Vegetable and Animal Oils and Fats". Definition and Classification of Commodities. FAO (1992). Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  95. B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Chinese vegetable tallow". Minor oil crops. FAO. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  96. "Finishing Solid Pine". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  97. T.M. Teynor et all (1992). "Vernonia". Alternative Field Crops Manual. Retrieved 2006-09-06. 
  98. "Amur cork tree". Herbal Remedies Web site. Retrieved on 2006-07-25. Herbal Remedies sells herbal supplements and products.
  99. "ModelCo Colourbox Blush review". Retrieved on 2006-09-11.
  100. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named balanos
  101. R. Kleiman (1990). J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.). ed. "Chemistry of new industrial oilseed crops". Advances in new crops (Timber Press, Portland, OR): 196-203. Retrieved 2006-11-19. 
  102. Fa-Huan Ge, Hua-Ping Lei (April 2006). "Study on the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Brucea Javanica oil". Zhong Yao Cai 29: 383-7. 
  103. "Burdock oil for hair loss". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  104. "Oils of Aloha". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  105. Carrot seeds are also used to obtain an essential oil with quite different properties than carrot seed pressed oil.
  106. "Cold Pressed Carrot Seed Oil (Egypt)". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  107. "Castor Oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  108. B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman (1992). "Chaulmoogra". Minor oil crops. FAO. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  109. Harvey Wickes Felter, and John Uri Lloyd (1898). "Gynocardia—Chaulmoogra". King's American Dispensatory. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  110. E.S. Oplinger et al (1991). "Crambe". Alternative Field Crops Manual. Retrieved 2006-09-06. 
  111. Robert Kleiman (1990). "Chemistry of New Industrial Oilseed Crops". Advances in new crops: 196-203. Retrieved 2006-10-09. 
  112. "International Jojoba Export Council: Glossary". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  113. "FrontierCoop: Lemon Essential Oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-31.
  114. Julia F. Morton. "Mango". Fruits of Warm Climates. 
  115. "Florida Chemical: Orange Oil Applications". Retrieved on 2006-07-31. Florida Chemical sells citrus oils.
  116. "Cook's Encyclopedia: Palm oil/palm kernel oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  117. "Aromatic: Rosehip Seed Oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  118. Subhuti Dharmananda. "Sea buckthorn". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  119. " Shea butter". Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  120. "Limonnik: Viburnum oil". Retrieved on 2006-07-25. Limonnik sells health related products from natural sources.
  121. "Tall Oil (Liquid Rosin)". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  122. "Snowdrift Farm: Fixed Oil Glossary". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
  123. "Tropilab: Dipteryx Odorata - Tonka Bean". Retrieved on 2006-07-25.

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